Commonly this is caused by the installation program you've downloaded to become corrupted in the download. By redownloading to either a different location you should be able to fix this issue.
Another common remedy for this issue is to download the redistributable package corresponding to your architecture:
To download the full redistributable package, rather than the bootstrapper, click the architecture you need below to start the download:
The redistributable might download more than you need, but is a single download. This is a preferred method if you do not worry about bandwidth, or if you want to put it on a secure location.
Be sure to Check Windows Update for any updates after you've installed the .NET Framework.