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WP7 App with Key Windows Azure resources – Slides, Videos, How-To’s, and T-shooting – for quick consumption on the go.
In his book Programming Windows Identity Foundation (Dev - Pro) Vittorio provides good explanation of how sign-in flow performed in the case of claims aware application. It is based on WS-Federation Sign-In Sequence and called WS-Federation Passive Requestor Profile. The summary of steps are:
Good explanation for the process and visuals of the sequence including Fiddler captures of the HTTP trafic provided in Claims-Based Architectures from A Guide to Claims–based Identity and Access Control. For deep dive consider reading Michele Leroux Bustamante’s Passive Authentication for ASP.NET with WIF.
Following are your choices for available STS you can use in your applications: