The other day somebody ask me if there was a way to limit the amount of work that Site Analysis in IIS SEO Toolkit would cause to the server. This is interesting for a couple of reasons,
In Beta 1 we do not support the Crawl-delay directive in the Robots exclusion protocol; in future versions we will look at adding support this setting. The good news is that in Beta 1 we do have a configurable setting that can help you achieve this goals called Maximum Number of Concurrent Requests that you can configure.
To set it:
In the URL Rewrite forum somebody posted the question "are redirects bad for search engine optimization?". The answer is: not necessarily, Redirects are an important tool for Web sites and if used in the right context they actually are a required tool. But first a bit of background.
A redirect in simple terms is a way for the server to indicate to a client (typically a browser) that a resource has moved and they do this by the use of an HTTP status code and a HTTP location header. There are different types of redirects but the most common ones used are:
Below is an example on the response sent from the server when requesting http://www.microsoft.com/SQL/
One of the most important factors in SEO is the concept called organic linking, in simple words it means that your page gets extra points for every link that external Web sites have linking to your page. So now imagine the Search Engine Bot is crawling an external Web site and finds a link pointing to your page (example.com/some-page) and when it tries to visit your page it runs into a redirect to another location (say example.com/somepage). Now the Search Engine has to decide if it should add the original "some-page" into its index as well as if it should "add the extra points" to the new location or to the original location, or if it should just ignore it entirely. Well the answer is not that simple, but a simplification of it could be:
IIS Search Optimization Toolkit has a couple of rules that look for different patterns related to Redirects. The Beta version includes the following:
So how does it look like? In the image below I ran Site Analysis against a Web site and it found a few of these violations (2 and 3).
Notice that when you double click the violations it will tell you the details as well as give you direct access to the related URL's so that you can look at the content and all the relevant information about them to make the decision. From that menu you can also look at which other pages are linking to the different pages involved as well as launch it in the browser if needed.
Similarly with all the other violations it tries to explain the reason it is being flagged as well as recommended actions to follow for each of them.
IIS Search Engine Optimization Toolkit can also help you find all the different types of redirects and the locations where they are being used in a very easy way, just select Content->Status Code Summary in the Dashboard view and you will see all the different HTTP Status codes received from your Web site. Notice in the image below how you can see the number of redirects (in this case 18 temporary redirects and 2 permanent redirects). You can also see how much content they accounted for, in this case about 2.5 kb (Note that I've seen Web sites generate a large amount of useless content in redirect traffic, speaking of spending in bandwidth). You can double click any of those rows and it will show you the details of the URL's that returned that and from there you can see who links to them, etc.
So going back to the original question: "are redirects bad for Search Engine Optimization?". Not necessarily, they are an important tool used by Web application for many reasons such as:
Just make sure you don't abuse them by having redirects to redirects, unnecessary redirects, infinite loops, and use the right semantics.
Today somebody was running the IIS SEO Toolkit and using the Site Analysis feature flagged a lot of violations about "The page contains multiple canonical formats.". The reason apparently is that he uses Query String parameters to pass contextual information or other information between pages. This of course yield the question: Does that mean in general query strings are bad news SEO wise?
Well, the answer is not necessarily.
I will start by clarifying that this violation in Site Analysis means that our algorithm detected that those two URL's look like the same content, note that we make no assumptions based on the URL (including Query String parameters). This kind of situation is bad for a couple of reasons:
Query String by themselves do not pose a terrible threat to SEO, most modern Search Engines deal OK with Query Strings, however its the organic linking and the potential abuse of Query Strings that could give you headaches.
Remember, Search Engines should make no assumptions based on the fact it is a single "page" that serves tons of content through a single Absulte Path and the use of Query Strings. This is typical in many cases such as when using index.php, where pretty much every page on the site is served by the same resource and just using variations of Query Strings or path information.
Well, there are several things you could do, but probably one of the easiest is to just tell Search Engines (more specifically crawlers or bots) to not index pages that have the different Query String variations that really are meant only for the application to pass state and not to specify different content. This can be done using the Robots Exclusion Protocol and use the wildcard matching to specify to not follow any URL's that contain a '?'. Note that you should make sure you are not blocking URL's that actually are supposed to be indexed. For this you can use the Site Analysis feature to run it again and it will flag an informational message for each URL that is not visited due to the robots exclusion file.
In summary, try to keep canonical formats yourself, don't leave any guesses to Search Engines cause some of them might get it wrong. There are new ways of specifying the canonical form in your markup but it is "very recent" (as in 2009) and some Search Engines do not support it (I believe the top three do, though) using the new rel="canonical":
In the Beta 2 version of IIS SEO Toolkit we will support this tag and have better detection of this canonical issues. So stay tuned.
Other ways to solve this is to use URL Rewrite so that you can easily redirect or rewrite your URL's to get rid of the Query Strings and use more SEO friendly URL's.
One easy way to enhance the experience of users visiting your Web site by increasing the perceived performance of navigating in your site is to reduce the number of HTTP requests that are required to display a page. There are several techniques for achieving this, such as merging scripts into a single file, merging images into a big image, etc, but by far the simplest one of all is making sure that you cache as much as you can in the client. This will not only increase the rendering time but will also reduce load in your server and will reduce your bandwidth consumption.
Unfortunately the different types of caches and the different ways of set it can be quite confusing and esoteric. So my recommendation is to think about one way and use that all the time, and that way is using the HTTP 1.1 Cache-Control header.
So first of all, how do I know if my application is being well behaved and sending the right headers so browsers can cache them. You can use a network monitor or tools like Fiddler or wfetch to look at all the headers and figure out if the headers are getting sent correctly. However, you will soon realize that this process won't scale for a site with hundreds if not thousands of scripts, styles and images.
To figure out if your images are sending the right headers you can follow the next steps:
Alternatively you can just save the following query as "ImagesNotCached.xml" and use the Menu "Query->Open Query" for it. This should make it easy to open the query for different Web sites or keep testing the results when making changes:
In IIS 7 this is trivial to fix, you can just drop a web.config file in the same directory where your images and scripts and CSS styles specifying the caching behavior for them. The following web.config will send the Cache-Control header so that the browser caches the responses for up to 7 days.
Furthermore, using the same query above in the Query Builder you can Group by Directory and find the directories that really worth adding this. For that is just matter of clicking the "Group by" button and adding the URL-Directory to the Group by clauses. Not surprisingly in my case it flags the App_Themes directory where I store 8 images.
One thing to note is that that even if you do not do anything most modern browsers will use conditional requests to reduce the latency if they have a copy in their cache, as an example, imagine the browser needs to display logo.gif as part of displaying test.htm and that image is available in their cache, the browser will issue a request like this
GET /logo.gif HTTP/1.1
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
If-Modified-Since: Mon, 09 Jun 2008 16:58:00 GMT
Note the use of If-Modfied-Since header which tells the server to only send the actual data if it has been changed after that time. In this case it hasn't so the server responds with a status code 304 (Not Modified)
HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
Last-Modified: Mon, 09 Jun 2008 16:58:00 GMT
Date: Sun, 07 Jun 2009 06:33:51 GMT
Even though this helps you can imagine that this still requires a whole roundtrip to the server which even though will have a short response, it can still have a significant impact if rendering of the page is waiting for it, as in the case of a CSS file that the browser needs to resolve to display correctly the page or an <img> tag that does not include the dimensions (width and height attributes) and so requires the actual image to determine the required space (one reason why you should always specify the dimensions in markup to increase rendering performance).
Today we are releasing the IIS Search Engine Optimization Toolkit. The IIS SEO Toolkit is a set of features that aim to help you keep your Web site and its content in good shape for both Users and Search Engines.
The features that are included in this Beta release include:
Checkout the great blog about IIS SEO Toolkit by ScottGu, or this IIS SEO simple video of some of its capabilities.
One of the problems with many similar tools out there is that they require you to publish the updates to your production sites before you can even use the tools, and of course would never be usable for Intranet or internal applications that are not exposed to the Web. The IIS Search Engine Optimization Toolkit can be used internally in your own development or staging environments giving you the ability to clean up the content before publishing to the Web. This way your users do not need to pay the price of broken links once you publish to the Web and you will not need to wait for those tools or Search Engines to crawl your site to finally discover you broke things.
For developers this means that they can now easily look at the potential impact of removing or renaming a file, easily check which files are referring to this page and which files he can remove because of only being referenced by this page.
One thing that is important to clarify is that you can target and analyze your production sites if you want to, and you can target Web applications running in any platform, whether its ASP.NET, PHP, or plain HTML text files running in your local IIS or on any other remote server.
Bottom line, try it against your Web site, look at the different features and give us feedback for additional reports, options, violations, content to parse, etc, post any comments or questions at the IIS Search Engine Optimization Forum.
The IIS SEO Toolkit documentation can be found at http://learn.iis.net/page.aspx/639/using-iis-search-engine-optimization-toolkit/, but remember this is only Beta 1 so we will be adding more features and content.
While using IIS Manager, did you ever wondered what configuration section is this UI changing? Is there a way I could automate this using scripts or command line?
Well, if you use IIS Manager 7.0 you might have noticed that we have a link in every page called Online Help, and if you've ever clicked it you would have noticed that it takes you to the IIS 7 Operations Guide, however you might ask yourself if it was that important to place that in every page, and the answer was that we had other reasons to add it there.
Back then when we were designing the UI we realized we wanted to provide the best content we could have for each page and potentially be able to update it as more content was available, for that reason we added this link there. However, the content was not ready at the time and instead we pointed it to our operations guide.
But the good news is that we are updating those links to point to their respective entry in the Configuration Reference that was recently published. This means now that in any page in IIS Manager, if you click the Online Help we will point you to the configuration section that this UI would change which will give you details about how the section look like, ways to change it using Scripts, AppCmd, etc.
An interesting thing, this new routing mechanism is brought to you by our very own URL Rewrite module and a simple Rewrite Map as well as a couple of rules. If you haven't looked into it, you should definitely download it and give it a try, you'll soon realize that there are so many things you can do without writing any code that you'll love it.
During this PDC I attended Ian's presentation about WPF and Silverlight where he demonstrated the high degree of compatibility that can be achieved between a WPF desktop application and a Silverlight application. One of the differences that he demonstrated was when your application consumed Web Services since Silverlight applications execute in a sandboxed environment they are not allowed to call random Web Services or issue HTTP requests to servers that are not the originating server, or a server that exposes a cross-domain manifest stating that it is allowed to be called by clients from that domain.
Then he moved to show how you can work around this architectural difference by writing your own Web Service or HTTP end-point that basically gets the request from the client and using code on the server just calls the real Web Service. This way the client sees only the originating server and it allows the call to succeed, and the server can freely call the real Web Service. Funny enough while searching for a Quote Service I ran into an article from Dino Esposito in MSDN magazine where he explains the same issue and also exposes a "Compatibility Layer" which again is just code (more than 40 lines of code) to act as proxy to call a Web Service (except he uses the JSON serializer to return the values).
The obvious disadvantage is that this means you have to write code that only forwards the request and returns the response acting essentially as a proxy. Of course this can be very simple, but if the Web Service you are trying to call has any degree of complexity where custom types are being sent around, or if you actually need to consume several methods exposed by it, then it quickly becomes a big maintenance nightmare trying to keep them in sync when they change and having to do error handling properly, as well as dealing with differences when reporting network issues, soap exceptions, http exceptions, etc.
So after looking at this, I immediately thought about ARR (Application Request Routing) which is a new extension for IIS 7.0 (see http://www.iis.net/extensions) that you can download for free from IIS.NET for Windows 2008, that among many other things is capable of doing this kind of routing without writing a single line of code.
This blog tries to show how easy it is to implement this using ARR. Here are the steps to try this: (below you can find the software required), note that if you are only interested in what is really new just go to 'Enter ARR' section below to see the configuration that fix the Web Service call.
Message: Unhandled Error in Silverlight 2 Application An exception occurred during the operation, making the result invalid.
One of the features offered by ARR is to provide proxy functionality to forward requests to another server. One of the scenarios where this functionality is useful is when using it from clients that cannot make calls directly to the real data, this includes Silverlight, Flash and AJAX applications. As shown in this blog, by just using a few lines of XML configuration you can enable clients to call services in other domains without having to write hundreds of lines of code for each method. It also means that I get the original data and that if the WSDL were to change I do not need to update any wrappers. Additionally if using REST based services you could use local caching in your server relying on Output Cache and increase the performance of your applications significantly (again with no code changes).
Here is the software I installed to do this sample(amazing that all of it is completely free):
IIS 7 provides a rich extensibility model, whether extending the server or the user interface, one critical thing is provide a simple setup application that can install all the required files, add any registration information required, and modify the server settings as required by the extension. Visual Studio 2008 provides a set of project types called Setup and Deployment projects specifically for this kind of applications. The output generated for these projects is an MSI that can perform several actions for you, including copying files, adding files to the GAC, adding registry keys, and many more. In this document we will create a setup project to install a hypothetical runtime Server Module that also includes a User Interface extension for IIS Manager. Our setup will basically perform the following actions: • Copy the required files, including three DLL’s and an html page. • Add a couple of registry keys. • Add the managed assemblies to the GAC • Modify applicationHost.config to register a new module • Modify administration.config to register a new UI extensibility for InetMgr • Create a new sample application that exposes the html pages • Finally, we will remove the changes from both configuration files during uninstall
Start Visual Studio 2008. In the File Menu, select the option New Project. In the New Project Dialog, expand the Other Project Types option in the Project type tree view. Select the option Setup and Deployment type and select the option Setup Project. Enter a name for the Project and a location. I will use SampleSetup as the name.
Adding assemblies to the setup is done in the same File System editor, however it includes a special folder called Global Assembly Cache that represents the GAC in the target system. In our sample we will add to the GAC the assemblies that have the runtime server module and the user interface modules for IIS Manager. I have created the following set of projects:
Back in Visual Studio,
Visual Studio also includes a Registry editor that helps you adding any registry keys in the target machine. For this sample I will just add a registry key in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\My Company\Message. For that: Select the menu option View->Editor->Registry. Expand the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE node and drill down to Software\[Manufacturer]. [Manufacturer] is a variable that holds the name of the company, and can be set by selecting the SampleSetup node in Solution Explorer and using the Property Grid to change it. There are several other variables defined such as Author, Description, ProductName, Title and Version that helps whenever dynamic text is required. Right click [Manufacturer] and select the option new String Value. Enter Message as the name. To set the value you can select the item in the List View and use the Property Grid to set its value. After completing this, the project should look as follows:
To support any custom code to be executed when running the setup application, Visual Studio (more explicitly MSI) supports the concept of Custom Actions. These Custom Actions include running an application, a script or executing code from a managed assembly. For our sample, we will create a new project where we will add all the code to read and change configuration. Select the option File->Add->New Project. Select the Class Library template and name it SetupHelper.
As you can see the code above is actually really simple, it just calls helper methods in a utility class called InstallUtil that is shown at the end of this entry. You will also need to add the InstallUtil class to the project to be able to compile it. The only interesting piece of code above is how we pass the TargetDir from the Setup project to the Custom action through the Parameters property of the InstallContext type.
To be able to use our new Custom Action we need to add the SetupHelper output to our setup project, for that: Select the option View->Editor->File System Right-click the Application Folder node and select the option Add Project Output... and select the SetupHelper project in the Project drop down.
After doing this, the DLL will be included as part of our setup.
Select the option View->Editor->Custom Actions Right-click the Install node and select the option Add Custom Action… drill down into the Application Folder and select the Primary output from SetupHelper.
Click OK and type a name such as InstallModules
Now, since we want to pass the TargetDir variable to be used as the physical path for the web application that we will create within our Installer derived-class, select the custom action and go to the Property Grid. There is a property called CustomActionData. This property is used to pass any data to the installer parameters class, and uses the format “/<name>=<value>”. So for our example we will set it to: /TargetDir="[TARGETDIR]\"
In the same editor, right-click the Uninstall node and select the option Add Custom Action…, again drill down into the Application Folder and select the Primary output from SetupHelper. Press OK and type a name such as UninstallModules. After doing this the editor should look as follows:
Finally we can build the solution by using the Build->Rebuild Solution menu option. This will create a file called SampleSetup.msi, in the folder SampleSetup\SampleSetup\Debug\SampleSetup.msi You can now run this MSI and it will walk through the process of installing. The user interface that is provided by default can also be configured to add new steps or remove the current steps. You can also provide a Banner logo for the windows and many more options from the View->Editor->User Interface.
Visual Studio provides different packaging mechanisms for the setup application. You can change it through the Project Properties dialog where you get the option to use: 1) As loose uncompressed files. This option packages all the files by just copying them into a file system structure where the files are copied unchanged. This is a good packaging option for CD or DVD based setups 2) In setup file. This option packages all the files within the MSI file 3) In cabinet files. This option creates a set of CAB files that can be used in scenarios such as diskette based setup.
You can also customize all the setup properties using the property grid, such as DetectNewerInstalledVersion which will warn users if a newer version is already installed or RemovePreviousVersion that will automatically remove older versions for the user whenever he tries to install a new one.
Turns out that the managed code custom action will fail under 64-bit platform due to it being executed as a 32-bit custom action the following blog talks about the details and shows how you can fix the issue:
Visual Studio 2008 provides a simple option to easily create Setup applications that can perform custom code through Custom actions. In this document we created a simple custom action to install modules and InetMgr extensions through this support.
For the latest information about IIS 7.0, see the IIS 7 Web site at http://www.iis.net
This is the class that is used from the SetupHelper class we created to do the actual changes in configuration. As you can see it only has six public methods, AddModule, AddUIModuleProvider, CreateApplication, RemoveApplication, RemoveModule, and RemoveUIModule. The other methods are just helper methods to facilitate reading configuration.
Today we are releasing a new Web Site at http://www.microsoft.com/web/ where users can get a one stop shop for learning about the Microsoft Web Platform. This is part of a bigger effort to make it easier to get started with building and running Web Applications on Windows and IIS.
As part of this a new tool called the Web Platform Installer Beta is also being released to help you getting started installing and getting all the software that you need from a single place without having to hunt around for installers, links or anything else. Just launch the tool, choose the software and configuration you are interested and it takes care of validating and installing pre-requisites.
This tool will let you easily setup your development machines for building Web Applications quite nicely, it will also help you discover new tools, applications, features and beta's as they are getting released from several sources including IIS, ASP.NET and Visual Web Developer and more as we continually make new software available through updates to the feed that the tool consumes.
Download page: http://www.microsoft.com/web/channel/products/WebPlatformInstaller.aspx
Link to Run it: http://go.microsoft.com/?linkid=9588072
Here are a few snapshots of the tool:
This is the start page where you can choose to install everything available or customize the installation (Your Choice).
In this page you can customize the selection and browse around all the current list of products and check and uncheck any product you want to install.
There are a couple of more pages, and finally the progress where the tool downloads any files required and install them, so that you can at once get the whole Web Platform installed easily.
Some of the products and features that the Beta supports installing and configuring include:
So as you can see everything you need to build Web Applications, from a Web Server (IIS), to a Development tool (Visual Web Developer) to a Database (SQL Server Express) and many more all for free.
So go ahead and try the tool, give us feedback (remember this is a Beta) so it can only get better :)
Today in the IIS.NET Forums a question was asked if it was possible to use the same IIS Manager Users authentication in the context of a Web Application so that you could have say something like WebDAV using the same credentials as you use when using IIS Manager Remote Administration.
The IIS Manager Remote Administration allows you to connect to manage your Web Site using credentials that are not Windows Users, but instead just a combination of User and Password. This is implemented following a Provider model where the default implementation we ship uses our Administration.config file (%windir%\system32\inetsrv\config\administration.config) as the storage for this users. However, you can easily implement a base class to authentication against a database or any other users store if needed. This means you can build your own application and call our API's (ManagementAuthentication).
Even better in the context of a Web Site running in IIS 7.0 you can actually implement this without having to write a single line of code.
Disclaimer: Administration.config out-of-the box only has permissions for administrators to be able to read the file. This means that a Web Application will not be able to access the file, so you need to change the ACL's in the file to provide read permissions for your Application, but you should make sure that you limit the read access to the minimum required such as below.
Here is how you do it:
What is also nice is that you can use URL Authorization to further restrict permissions in your pages for this users, for example, if I didn't want a particular IIS Manager User (say MyIisManagerUser) to access the Web Site I can just configure this in the same web.config:
If you want to learn more about remote administration and how to configure it you can read: http://learn.iis.net/page.aspx/159/configuring-remote-administration-and-feature-delegation-in-iis-7/