I needed to deliver some basic "getting started" sessions recently for developers who are new to SharePoint. Whilst SP 2013 is now in market, many customers are still developing for SP2010 (or even just getting around to installing it!) so all the new funky stuff around cloud apps didn't apply.
These two resources proved to be just what I needed in terms of bite sized chunks and "how do to X" as a developer in SharePoint 2010:
SharePoint 2010 Development Basics Technical Articleshttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh127069(v=office.14).aspx
Application Lifecycle Management in SharePoint 2010http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg604045(v=office.14).aspx