In the notes for yesterday's release of the ComputeFileHashes tool (and source code), I mentioned that I'd written my own .NET HashAlgorithm class to compute CRC-32 hash values. The complete implementation can be found below and should behave just like every other HashAlgorithm subclass (ex: MD5 or SHA1). The code here is based on the CRC-32 reference implementation provided in Annex D of the PNG specification and pretty much "just worked". It implements the necessary Initialize, HashCore, and HashFinal methods as well as the technically optional (but practically necessary) Hash and HashSize properties. There's no test code to speak of, though it's worth pointing out that I've run tens of gigabytes of data through my ComputeFileHashes tool and have verified the correctness of the computed CRC-32 value for each test file. :)

Without further ado:

using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;

namespace Delay
{
    /// <summary>
    /// HashAlgorithm implementation for CRC-32.
    /// </summary>
    [System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Naming",
        "CA1709:IdentifiersShouldBeCasedCorrectly", MessageId = "CRC",
        Justification = "Matching algorithm acronym.")]
    public class CRC32 : HashAlgorithm
    {
        // Shared, pre-computed lookup table for efficiency
        private static readonly uint[] _crc32Table;

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes the shared lookup table.
        /// </summary>
        [System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance",
            "CA1810:InitializeReferenceTypeStaticFieldsInline", Justification =
            "Table values must be computed; not possible to remove the static constructor.")]
        static CRC32()
        {
            // Allocate table
            _crc32Table = new uint[256];

            // For each byte
            for (uint n = 0; n < 256; n++)
            {
                // For each bit
                uint c = n;
                for (int k = 0; k < 8; k++)
                {
                    // Compute value
                    if (0 != (c & 1))
                    {
                        c = 0xedb88320 ^ (c >> 1);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        c = c >> 1;
                    }
                }

                // Store result in table
                _crc32Table[n] = c;
            }
        }

        // Current hash value
        private uint _crc32Value;

        // True if HashCore has been called
        private bool _hashCoreCalled;

        // True if HashFinal has been called
        private bool _hashFinalCalled;

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance.
        /// </summary>
        public CRC32()
        {
            InitializeVariables();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes internal state.
        /// </summary>
        public override void Initialize()
        {
            InitializeVariables();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes variables.
        /// </summary>
        private void InitializeVariables()
        {
            _crc32Value = uint.MaxValue;
            _hashCoreCalled = false;
            _hashFinalCalled = false;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Updates the hash code for the provided data.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="array">Data.</param>
        /// <param name="ibStart">Start position.</param>
        /// <param name="cbSize">Number of bytes.</param>
        protected override void HashCore(byte[] array, int ibStart, int cbSize)
        {
            if (null == array)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException("array");
            }

            if (_hashFinalCalled)
            {
                throw new CryptographicException(
                    "Hash not valid for use in specified state.");
            }
            _hashCoreCalled = true;

            for (int i = ibStart; i < ibStart + cbSize; i++)
            {
                byte index = (byte)(_crc32Value ^ array[i]);
                _crc32Value = _crc32Table[index] ^ ((_crc32Value >> 8) & 0xffffff);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Finalizes the hash code and returns it.
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        protected override byte[] HashFinal()
        {
            _hashFinalCalled = true;
            return Hash;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns the hash as an array of bytes.
        /// </summary>
        [System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Design",
            "CA1065:DoNotRaiseExceptionsInUnexpectedLocations", Justification =
            "Matching .NET behavior by throwing here.")]
        [System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Usage",
            "CA2201:DoNotRaiseReservedExceptionTypes", Justification =
            "Matching .NET behavior by throwing NullReferenceException.")]
        public override byte[] Hash
        {
            get
            {
                if (!_hashCoreCalled)
                {
                    throw new NullReferenceException();
                }
                if (!_hashFinalCalled)
                {
                    // Note: Not CryptographicUnexpectedOperationException because
                    // that can't be instantiated on Silverlight 4
                    throw new CryptographicException(
                        "Hash must be finalized before the hash value is retrieved.");
                }

                // Convert complement of hash code to byte array
                byte[] bytes = BitConverter.GetBytes(~_crc32Value);

                // Reverse for proper endianness, and return
                Array.Reverse(bytes);
                return bytes;
            }
        }

        // Return size of hash in bits.
        public override int HashSize
        {
            get
            {
                return 4 * 8;
            }
        }
    }
}

The CRC32 class presented here is nothing fancy, but it should be a pretty solid implementation of the once-popular CRC-32 algorithm that's ripe for reuse. Thanks to .NET's HashAlgorithm base class, it's easy to drop in CRC32 anywhere hashes are already being computed. I hope you find it useful!

Updated 2009-01-22: Corrected implementation of HashSize to return hash size in bits instead of bytes.

Updated 2009-02-16: Initialize the _crc32Value variable to its starting value for consistency with the Framework's HashAlgorithm classes where a call to Initialize is not necessary for a newly constructed instance.

Updated 2010-12-06: Added missing ibStart offset to HashCore loop.