It was over a year ago that I wrote and shared the first version of my Insomnia utility. A few months later, I published a new version of Insomnia to satisfy the two most popular feature requests. Here's how I explained Insomnia's motivation at the time:

The default power settings for Windows are set up so a computer will go to sleep after 15 to 30 minutes of inactivity (i.e., no mouse or keyboard input). This is great because a computer that's not being used doesn't need to be running at full power. By letting an idle machine enter sleep mode, the user benefits from a significant reduction in electricity use, heat generation, component wear, etc.. And because sleep mode preserves the state of everything in memory, it's quick to enter, quick to exit, and doesn't affect the user's work-flow. All the same applications continue running, windows stay open and where they were, etc.. So sleep mode is a Good Thing and I'm a fan.

However, sometimes a computer is busy even though someone isn't actively using the mouse and keyboard; common examples include playing a movie, burning a DVD, streaming music, etc.. In these cases, you don't want the machine to go to sleep because you're using it - even though you're not actually using it! So most media players and disc burners tell Windows not to go to sleep while they're running. In fact, there's a dedicated API for exactly this purpose: the SetThreadExecutionState Win32 Function.

But what about those times when the computer is busy doing something and the relevant program doesn't suppress the default sleep behavior? For example, it might be downloading a large file, re-encoding a music collection, backing up the hard drive, or hashing the entire contents of the disk. You don't want the machine to go to sleep for now, but are otherwise happy with the default sleep behavior. Unfortunately, the easiest way I know of to temporarily suppress sleeping is to go to Control Panel, open the Power Options page, change the power plan settings, commit them - and then remember to undo everything once the task is finished. It's not hard; but it's kind of annoying...

 

I've gotten a bunch of positive feedback on Insomnia and heard from a lot of people who use it for exactly the kinds of things I expected. (Thanks, everyone!) But I've also heard from a number of people who use Insomnia for a slightly different purpose: as an override of their machine's current power settings. For one reason or another, these people don't have control over their power configuration (perhaps because their domain enforces the relevant group policy), but still want to prevent their computer from going to sleep. This is usually because they want to connect to their machine remotely (ex: via file sharing or Remote Desktop) and can't do that if the machine is forced to sleep...

Insomnia application

These people tend to put a shortcut to Insomnia in their Startup group (click Start Menu, All Programs, Startup) and set the "Minimize" flag to automatically run Insomnia as an icon in the notification area whenever they log in. Because they leave Insomnia running all the time, their computer stays awake and they're able to use it whenever they need to. I've always thought this is a cool scenario - and felt that maybe a lower-overhead version of Insomnia would be particularly compelling here.

 

I wrote the original Insomnia using the .NET Framework - which meant it was super-easy to write and took practically no time or effort on my part. That's the way (uh-huh, uh-huh!) I like it, because the thing I have the least of is spare time and so anything that makes me more productive is full of win. And in my experience, .NET isn't just more productive, it's dramatically more productive.

That said, everything has a cost, and one of the common downsides of .NET is longer startup time and higher memory use. All the stuff .NET does for you (comprehensive APIs, high-level abstractions, garbage collection, etc.) takes extra time to load and extra memory to keep around. That said, I'll confidently suggest these costs are negligible in the majority of cases and the benefits of .NET (developer productivity, rich feature set, security, etc.) are overwhelmingly in its favor. But Insomnia is a little different than most programs: the application exists only as a wrapper for a single API (SetThreadExecutionState), so the people who run it all the time aren't really benefitting from the power of .NET...

Insomnia minimized to the notification area

I thought it might be fun to re-implement Insomnia in native code (vs. managed code) since it was such a simple program. I've done exactly that - and the result is that Insomnia is now available in three versions: .NET, 32-bit native, and 64-bit native!

 

[Click here to download all three flavors of Insomnia along with the complete source code for managed and native.]

 

Of course, while it was neat to do some Windows API coding for a change, the experience served to reinforce my belief in the fundamental productivity benefits of .NET and the power of the WPF/Silverlight layout system. About half the code in native Insomnia exists for the purpose of layout - which the .NET version accomplishes much more succinctly with XAML. The other half of the code handles basic framework-y stuff like creating a window, configuring it, etc. - more things WPF handles for you or makes quite convenient. And the last half of the code [ ;) ] deals with a variety of little things that are quite simple in the managed world, but require non-trivial effort in native code (ex: copying strings, setting up a complicated function call, etc.).

Please don't get me wrong; I completely agree that native code has its place in life (and there's a certain feeling of power one gets from using it). But I've had enough of that for now and will be happy to return to .NET for my next project. :)

 

Notes:

  • The most common question I get about Insomnia is whether it also disables the screen saver - it does not. When Insomnia is running, the screen saver will continue to kick in and turn off the monitor on its usual schedule. The difference is that the computer itself will not be allowed to enter sleep mode. Once the Insomnia window is closed, the computer can sleep again and will do so on its usual schedule.

  • The second most common question I get is why the Insomnia window stays above other windows. As I explained in the introductory post, this is so Insomnia is always visible when running and people will be less likely to accidentally leave their computers sleep-less by forgetting they've started it. This seems like the right behavior for the original "temporarily prevent sleep mode" scenario; for the "always on" scenario, minimizing Insomnia to the notification area seems to work well for everyone I've talked to.

  • My goal for the native version of Insomnia was to duplicate the functionality of the .NET version as closely as possible - not because I think the .NET version is perfect, but because it works well and it's what people are already familiar with. So while I wasn't obsessive about matching the font face and size exactly, a side-by-side comparison of the two programs shows a very strong correlation. :)

  • The one thing I didn't port from the .NET version was the "/minimize" command-line switch. Originally intended to make it easy for users to start Insomnia minimized, commenter rbirkby reminded me that Windows shortcuts already made that easy enough. It didn't seem necessary to duplicate this somewhat unnecessary feature, so I've omitted it to keep the native version just a bit simpler.

  • To start Insomnia minimized, just create a shortcut to it (right-click+drag+drop its icon somewhere (like the Start Menu / All Programs / Startup folder) then edit the shortcut's settings (right-click it and choose Properties) and choose "Minimized":

    Shortcut to start Insomnia minimized

    Alternatively, the following syntax will do the same thing from a batch file:

    start /MIN Insomnia.exe
  • Because the whole point of this exercise was to reduce Insomnia's run-time footprint, it's interesting to see how things worked out. Here's a table of the Resource Monitor statistics for each flavor as measured by opening and minimizing them all on my 64-bit Windows 7 machine:

    Flavor Commit (KB) Private (KB)
    .NET 66,972 17,940
    64-bit 2,144 1,876
    32-bit 1,652 1,332

    (Note that the .NET version uses somewhat less memory on a 32-bit version of Windows 7.)

  • Not only do the native versions of Insomnia use less memory - they start faster, too! Because they have fewer dependencies, there's simply less stuff to load from disk - and because disk access is (relatively) slow, minimizing it can do a lot to improve startup speeds.

  • Something that made life a little more pleasant for the native version was the SysLink common control - specifically its LM_GETIDEALSIZE message. This message is used to "Retrieve[s] the preferred height of a link for the control's current width." and it enabled me to approximate something kind of like WPF's measure/arrange-based layout system without having to write a bunch of code myself. So while I'd originally thought to use SysLink only for the hyperlink (duh!), I ended up using it for the version text and message as well!

  • As you'd expect, the Visual Studio solution/project for the new, native version of Insomnia uses the Visual Studio 2010 format. However, the solution/project for the original, managed version is still in the 2008 format I originally released it in (of course, opening it in VS 2010 automatically "upgrades" it).