There is a nice article by Luke Hoban called F# Fundamentals in the latest edition of the MSDN magazine.
F# is a new, functional and object-oriented programming language for the Microsoft .NET Framework, and it’s integrated into this year’s release of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010. F# combines simple, succinct syntax with strong static typing, and it scales from lightweight explorative programming in the F# Interactive up to large-scale .NET Framework-based component development with Visual Studio.
F# is designed from the ground up to run on the CLR. As a .NET Framework-based language, F# leverages the rich libraries available on the .NET Framework platform, and can be used to build .NET libraries or implement .NET interfaces. F# also takes advantage of many of the CLR core features, including generics, garbage collection, tail call instructions and the fundamental Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) type system.
This article takes a look at some of the core concepts of the F# language and its implementation on top of the CLR.