Engineering Windows 7

Welcome to our blog dedicated to the engineering of Microsoft Windows 7

The "Ecosystem"

The "Ecosystem"

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In the emails and comments, there are many topics that are raised and more often than not we see the several facets or positions of the issue. One theme that comes through is a desire expressed by folks to choose what is best for them. I wanted to pick up on the theme of choice since that is such an incredibly important part of how we approach building Windows—choice in all of its forms. This choice is really because Windows is part of an ecosystem, where many people are involved in making many choices about what types of computers, configuration of operating system, and applications/services they create, offer, or use. Windows is about being a great component of the ecosystem and what we are endeavoring to do with Windows 7 is to make sure we do a great job on the ecosystem aspects of building Windows 7.

Ecosystem and choice go hand in hand. When we build Windows we think of a number of key representatives within the ecosystem beyond Windows:

  • PC makers
  • Hardware components
  • Developers
  • Enthusiasts

Each of these parties has a key role to play in delivering on the PC experience and also in providing an environment where many people can take a PC and provide a tailored and differentiated experience, and where companies can profit by providing unique and differentiated products and services (and choice to consumers). For Windows 7 our goals have been to be clearer in our plans and stronger in our execution such that each can make the most of these opportunities building on Windows.

PC Makers (OEMs) are a key integration point for many aspects of the ecosystem. They buy and integrate hardware components and pre-install software applications. They work with retailers on delivering PCs and so on. The choices they provide in form factors for PCs and industrial design are something we all value tremendously as individuals. We have recently seen an explosion in the arrival of lower cost laptops and laptops that are ultra thin. Each has unique combinations of features and benefits. The choice to consumers, while sometimes almost overwhelming, allows for an unrivaled richness. For Windows 7 we have been working with OEMs very closely since the earliest days of the project to develop a much more shared view of how to deliver a great experience to customers. Together we have been sharing views on ways to provide differentiated PC experiences, customer feedback on pre-loaded software, and partnering on the end-to-end measurement of the performance of new PCs on key metrics such as boot and shutdown.

Hardware components include everything from the CPU through the “core” peripherals of i/o to add-on components. The array of hardware devices supported by Windows through the great work of independent hardware vendors (IHVs) is unmatched. Since Windows 95 and the introduction of plug-and-play we have continued to work to improve the experience of obtaining a new device and having it work by just plugging it in—something that also makes it possible to experience OS enhancements independent of releases of Windows. This is an area where some express that we should just support fewer devices that are guaranteed to work. Yet the very presence of choice and ever-improving hardware depends on the ability of IHVs to provide what they consider differentiated experiences on Windows, often independent of a specific release of Windows. The device driver model is the core technology that Microsoft delivers in Windows to enable this work. For Windows 7 we have committed to further stabilization of the driver model and to pull forward the work done for Windows Vista so it seamlessly applies to Windows 7. Drivers are a place where IHVs express their differentiated experience so the breadth of choice and opportunity is super important. I think it is fair to say that most of us desire the experience where a “clean install” of Windows 7 will “just work” and seamlessly obtain drivers from Windows Update when needed. Today with most modern PCs this is something that does “just work” and it is a far cry from even a few years ago. As with OEMs we have also been working with our IHV partners for quite some time. At WinHEC we have a chance to show the advances in Windows 7 around devices and the hardware ecosystem.

Developers write the software for Windows. Just as with the hardware ecosystem, the software ecosystem supports a vast array of folks building for the Windows platform. Developers have always occupied a special place in the collective heart of Microsoft given our company roots in providing programming languages. Each release of Windows offers new APIs and system services for developers to use to build the software they want to build. There are two key challenges we face in building Windows 7. First, we want to make sure that programs that run on Windows Vista continue to run on Windows 7. That’s a commitment we have made from the start of the project. As we all know this is perhaps the most critical aspect of delivering a new operating system in terms of compatibility. Sometimes we don’t do everything we can do and each release we look at how we can test and verify a broader set of software before we release. Beta tests help for sure but lack the systematic rigor we require. The telemetry we have improved in each release of Windows is a key aspect. But sometimes we aren’t compatible and then this telemetry allows us to diagnose and address post-release the issue. If you’ve seen an application failure and were connected to the internet there’s a good chance you got a message suggesting that an update is available. We know we need to close the loop more here. We also have to get better at the tools and practices Windows developers have available to them to avoid getting into these situations—at the other end of all this is one customer and bouncing between the ISV and Microsoft is not the best solution.

Our second challenge is in providing new APIs for developers that help them to deliver new functionality for their applications while at the same time provide enough value that there is a desire to spend schedule time using these APIs. Internally we often talk about “big” advances in the GUI overall (such as the clipboard or ability to easily print without developing an application specific driver model). Today functionality such as networking and graphics play vital roles in application development. We’ve talked about a new capability which is the delivery of touch capabilities in Windows 7. We’ve been very clear about our view that 64-bit is a place for developers to spend their energy as that is a transition well underway and a place where we are clearly focused.

Enthusiasts represent a key enabler of the ecosystem, and almost always the one that works for the joy of contributing. As a reader of this blog there’s a good chance you represent this part of the ecosystem—even if we work in the industry we also are “fans” of the industry. There are many aspects to a Windows release that need to appeal the enthusiasts. For example, many of us are the first line of configuration and integration for our family, friends, and neighbors. I know I spent part of Saturday setting up a new wireless network for a school teacher/friend of mine and I’m sure many of you do the same. Enthusiasts are also the most hardcore about wanting choice and control of their PCs. It is enthusiasts sites/magazines that have started to review new PCs based on the pre-installed software load and how “clean” that load is. It is enthusiasts that push the limits on new hardware such as gaming graphics. It is enthusiasts who are embracing 64-bit Windows and pushing Microsoft to make sure the ecosystem is 64-bit ready for Windows 7 (we’re pushing of course). I think of enthusiasts as the common thread running through the entire ecosystem, participating at each phase and with each segment. This blog is a chance to share with enthusiasts the ins and outs of all the choices we have to make to build Windows 7.

There are several other participants in the ecosystem that are equally important as integration points. The system builders and VARs provide PCs, software, and service for small and medium businesses around the world. Many of the readers of this blog, based on the email I have received, represent this part of the ecosystem. In many countries the retailers serve as this integration point for the individual consumer. For large enterprise customers the IT professionals require the most customization and management of a large number of PCs. Their needs are very demanding and unique across organizations.

Some have said that the an ecosystem is not the best approach that we could do a much better job for customers if we reduce the “surface area” of Windows and support fewer devices, fewer PCs, fewer applications, and less of Windows’ past or legacy. Judging by the variety of views we've seen I think folks desire a lot of choice (just in terms of DPI and monitor size).  Some might say that from an engineering view less surface area is an easier engineering problem (it is by definition), but in reality such a view would result in a radical and ever-shrinking reduction in the choices available for consumers. The reality is engineering is about putting constraints in place and those constraints can also be viewed as assets, which is how we view the breadth of devices, applications, and “history” of Windows. The ecosystem for PCs depends on opportunities for many people to try out many ideas and to explore ideas that might seem a bit crazy early on and then become mainstream down the road. With Windows 7 we are renewing our efforts at readying the ecosystem while also building upon the work done by everyone for Windows Vista.

The ecosystem is a pretty significant in both the depth and breadth of the parties involved. I thought for the purposes of our dialog on this blog it is worth highlighting this up front. There are always engineering impacts to balancing the needs each of the aspects of the ecosystem. Optimizing entirely along one dimension sometimes seems right in the short term, but over any period of time is a risky practice as the benefits of a stable platform that allows for differentiation is something that seems to benefit many.

With Windows 7 we committed up front to doing a better job as part of the PC ecosystem.

Does this post reflect your view of the ecosystem? How could we better describe all those involved in helping to make the PC experience amazing for everyone?


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  • I think one of the largest impediments to a successful release of windows is caused by the OEM's. It's rather ironic that the OEM's are one of the largest distributors of Windows but yet simultaneously are the largest contributors to ruining the experience.

    I say this because of the trends I've seen throughout the years of assisting family and friends with computer issues, it all comes down to how clean a machine is when it's shipped.

    Lets face it, we all know that OEM's will always ship a configuration of a machine that's always under powered in some areas, and charge a ridiculous figure for it. The fact is, the consumers already feel intimidated by its price tag. That's just partially the problem, the biggest culprit is the evaluation software and third party utilities (I should add, poor quality ones as well), that are shipped with the operating system, yes with the intent to aid and assist the user in "cleaning or maintaining" their system. Furthermore the idea of evalaution software is ever so confusing to users, people associate the fact that, Office comes with Windows, as if its a core suite, this perception shouldn't be completely blamed on the confusing product range, but should be attributed to the fact of shipping evaluation software and that users don't even understand that the software it came installed are evaluation, they just know that they paid X amount for an X piece of equipment, and only expected it to be included.

    It's frustrating to see family and friends purchase OEM machines and having to help them uninstall redundant utilities. I think Microsoft really needs to become more aggressive with their OEM's, and force some compliance with what is shipped with their configured images, furthermore, they should really work with peripheral companies as well with their software they ship with devices, another problem is bloat with these software packages which causes more system resource chew ups, for example, HP, Canon, et al, all tend to ship software that's completely redundant, is there really a need to ship fundamental tools like acrobat reader, or another photo viewing tool? It's effectively making new innovations in the new versions of windows redundant, in this scenario, some user installs their printer software and have a photo management tool installed, does this render windows photo gallery as obsolete? After all, all file associations will be mapped to this installed utility, users won't even have a faint clue in how to restore the associations.

    I think if Microsoft stripped away some of the flexibility for OEM's to cause havoc, they will ultimately achieve a much better OOBE, cause quite frankly, no matter how hard Microsoft works on enhancing the OOBE, they will forever be let down through the poor configuration machines shipped in conjunction with "junk" bundled with an OEM image.

    I truly think Microsoft will be able to get it right if they addressed concerns like this.

  • My entire understanding of just how much goes into Windows' backward compatibility was revamped when I read "The Old New Thing".

  • Hi Steven,

    One of the major things that people are cribbing with Vista OEM is lack of original Windows media.

    People paid >1000$ for their high end laptops and later when they want to install a clean copy of Vista they realized their OEM never bothered to provide install media. And the restore disk was a s**t which will wipe out their 200GB HDD and the manufacturer thinks that after using the laptop for say 6months people will have a way to backup their 200GB and restore after “resorting the laptop”.

    So in the Windows7 ecosystem can you ask (or convince) the OEM to provide Windows installation media which can be used with the OEM license to do a fresh install?

  • Well, i write for ask you this ::

    1)In windows 7 , users should forget to make a defragmentation!!!!!

    So find a way so that the hard disk management in Windows 7, is very efficient , very fast and optimized!!!!

    No defrag for users, the user in Windows 7 must only work, not think about nothing else.

    Therefore find ways to optimize the management of records, and in performance with very low fragmentation !!!!!!!!!!

    That's very very important, windows 7 Team!!!!!!!!!!!

    Windows 7 will be easy , very very easy!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Just fragmentation, once and for all.

    The users are annoys to Defragment windows!!!!!!!!!!!

    Find a way to do this, maybe make an Api specific for this!!!!!

    2)Reduce enormously , the memory and cpu occupation and consuption and Aero interface consuption, because also this , is very very important, for the windows 7 success!!!!!

    otherwise you risk really being overtaken by competitors this time!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    3) Multicore cpu consuption, will be balanced on each Core of quad-core and octa-core Cpu !!!!!!

    "And listen to the advice of a stupid user once every so often"


  • If you really want to make an OS for enthusiasts you can try a marketing move like calling it:

    Windows Pwn.

    But seriously I liked Vista with exception to some of the gutted/stripped down apps like Sound Recorder and Movie Maker. I suppose that's what third-party programs are for, but then again, when I buy Windows Ultimate edition..... what am I paying soooo much money for??

  • What kind of work has been done by Microsoft with Cablelabs to get CableCard capability for media centers to smaller PC Makers?


  • Windows "Ecosystem"?? what this?

  • You might be reading what we write but are you taking the information, advice, and critiques and actually using it?  I think the latest M3 release answers that question.

    The next release of Mac OS will allow me to install Mac OS X on my PC.  My PC wasn't supported on the current Leopard because NVidia had not created drivers yet.  This will be resolved in Snow Leopard and I will be making the switch.

    I've made my living developing on Microsoft platforms and technology.  Heck, Microsoft probably paid for my house.  It's time to move on though.  Too much was promised in Vista and then cut at the last minute.  I'll see you all on the flip side (or on the way back up the stairs).

  • I was surprised to discover that if you right click an exe program in Vista and select 'properties', you have a choice of 'compatibility mode' starting with Windows 95. Incl. my favorite Win ME that had a lot of good try-out ideas for XP.

  • I believe that these are most of the important ecosystems to get to the end user experience.  The problem comes when the end user doesn't know what to do when something doesn't work.  If software or hardware isn't compatible with the OS, many people won't even bother trying to fix it or make it work because it's too much of a hassle.

    When you are talking about choice and customization, you come down to people who do know what they're doing and people who don't.  Everything has to work in tandem between the ecosystems, though it often doesn't, which causes a majority of problems that people have with computers.

  • "Now Social sites have become a necessary part of my life and not only for killing my time but also for my business activites, I have to spend a huge amount of time in the world of social media.

    Roughly speaking, I spend more than seven hours each day on such sites but ya I love to stay in such sites"

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