statcounter tracker
Education - Site Home - MSDN Blogs
The Australian Education Blog
Ray Fleming's take on what's interesting in Education IT in Australia

  • Education

    Enter the Microsoft Australia Partner Awards to become Education Partner of the Year


    Microsoft Australia Partner Awards

    It’s that time again – your opportunity to gain fame and fortune for your business and for the great projects you have done in the Australian education market this year. Yep, we’ve opened entries for the 2012 Microsoft Australia Partner Awards, and yet again there’s an entry category for ‘Australian Education Partner of the Year’.

    Without a shadow of a doubt, winning any of the awards is a great way to raise your profile across the education marketplace, and you get a bonus of a snazzy logo to use in your marketing. But even just entering the awards raises your profile, as it means that your entries will be seen by key judges in the Microsoft Australia Education business. Last year the judges learned about some new projects that they were able to discuss with customers, and create some new business opportunities for our partners. We also ran a series of webinars with some of the entrants, to help to spread their stories out to other customers.

    The deadline for entries is 11th June*, and the winner will be announced at the Australia Partner Conference in Brisbane on the 4th September 2012.

    There are 24 categories that you can enter (although, obviously, your first priority should be Education Partner of the Year).

    Learn MoreYou can find out the categories, read the FAQ and submit your entry via the Microsoft Partner Network

    * The 11th June is important, because it’s the day after two important birthdays - mine and the
    Duke of Edinburgh, the world’s longest-serving consort (him, not me)
  • Education

    How the carbon tax will affect education


    I know there’s a political debate about the carbon tax, and I don’t want to go near that. But I did see the stories earlier this week (eg this one on Sky News) that the carbon tax is going to increase costs for NSW public sector organisations by nearly $50M, and figures quoted that the 2,177 public schools in NSW will each face an increased energy bill of $9,100 a year. And I guess similar figures will hit all schools, nationally.

    What will be the impact of carbon tax on education?

    The biggest impact is likely to be that senior managers will be looking at the energy bill going up, and start to ask more questions about where all that energy is going. From an ICT perspective, I think there are a couple of key areas to consider:

    • How to reduce the energy cost of your user devices
    • How to reduce the energy cost of your ICT infrastructure

    How to reduce the energy cost of your user devices

    With the rapid rise of ICT devices across education, there’s been a matching rise in energy use. For example, the DER student laptop scheme, with 850,000 new laptops, will have added a couple of megawatts of power demand each day.

    Some schools have wised up to this, and encourage their students to charge their laptops at home overnight, rather than in school.

    By switching to laptops from desktops, you’ll already be making a saving, as laptops use significantly less power than a desktop (which could save $100+ a year per device). There’s an interesting table here which gives you a quick snapshot of energy usage of different laptops and desktops used at the University of Pennsylvania.

    For some ideas of what you can do about your student and staff computers, take a look at this previous blog post about reducing IT energy usage.

    How to reduce the energy cost of your ICT infrastructure

    And then there’s the always-on devices, like servers, switches, routers and all kinds of gubbins connected to your network. Each of those devices with pretty flashing lights that you see once the lights are off are all gobbling power.

    There’s a bunch of case studies which look at different ways that education institutions have saved money on their infrastructure (for example, there are eight listed in this ‘Reducing IT costs in education’ article that cumulatively saved $4m across energy, hardware and running costs), and depending on your infrastructure size, you might find some other good advice here:


    Learn MoreRead more about Cost Saving in education

  • Education

    How to use twitter to recruit students


    The Genuis Recruiter (who sell social media services to universities recruiting international students) has a well-written blog with useful hints and data on recruiting international students in higher education. If it’s in your role to think about expanding your student base in a university or TAFE, or you’re curious about the intersection between technology and student recruitment, then I’d recommend adding their blog to your reading list.

    One of the really interesting posts from the last month is “How universities are using Twitter to recruit students”, which is important because of the rapid rate of growth of 12-17 year olds using it (the ideal demographic for your next generation of students). In total, there are over 100 million Twitter users, and so it would be wrong to think that Facebook is the only place where you can connect with your future students.

    In the use 84% of US universities have official Twitter presences, and they are using it for two key ways to connect to students for:

    • Communicating and interacting with future students
    • Advertising to students (with geotargeted ads based on students interests expressed through their own tweets)

    The Genius Recruiter article has links for further info, and also a handy infographic tip sheet with advice on how to get more clicks on your Twitter tweets.

    Learn MoreRead the original Genius Recruiter article "How universities are using Twitter to recruit students"

  • Education

    Lessons learned from DER Student Devices


    A few weeks ago, the Inter-American Development Bank released a report on the roll out of the One Laptop Per Child programme in Peru, where the government has put 850,000 laptops into the hands of school students. It created some controversy, especially as The Economist took a negative view on the outcomes (See “Great idea. Shame about the mediocre computer” from The Economist). When I mentioned it on my Posterous stream, I asked the question “Does anybody know if similar research is being undertaken for the Digital Education Revolution (DER) programmes in Australia?

    imageAnd so thanks are due to Derek Knox at Dell, who pointed me towards a new report “Student devices and the Digital Education Revolution: Lessons Learned” produced by IBRS (a research agency), with sponsorship from Intel and Dell.

    Lessons from the DER

    I recommend reading the report – it’s especially useful if your responsible for IT strategy in schools, and especially if you’re thinking about Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in education – as it contains some really useful information on the implementation model for student devices (whether that’s student owned devices, or school devices)

    Here’s the highlights I pulled out of the report (in my own words, so blame me, not the report if I’ve mis-interpreted it)

    In the Introduction the report talks about the future for the Digital Education Revolution (page 4):


    The bar has been raised in terms of student and public perception for education. The public now expect that all year 9 to 12 students will have access to computing devices, and that not having a device will somehow put a student at a disadvantage.

    The additional infrastructure required to support the existing number of devices has seen “business as usual” IT costs grow by at least 30%, and, in some cases observed, by over 200%. Over the past three years, at least some of these additional IT costs have been covered by the Building Education Revolution funds. With the BER completed, these on-going costs are coming home to roost.

    Either the DER funding needs to become a permanent fixture of Australia, or we need to find new ways to get computing power into students hands, in a way that will not eventually cripple school budgets.



    Chapter 2 then looks through a series of ‘lessons learned’ under a range of options. This is where there are some really key points that are applicable to anybody who’s responsible for a device strategy in a school, TAFE, and possibly even a university.

    Lesson 1: Fit for purpose

    Much of the procurement decision making focused on either the lowest cost device or the need for a device that continued the differentiation between a technologically advanced school and others (ie fee-charging schools needing to look ahead of government schools). The point is that little of the decision making focused on intended educational use and outcomes. There’s a good chart in this table which shows, from a 2009 DEEWR report, what students are actually using classroom computers for.

    Lesson 2: Warranty and Maintenance

    The IT industry runs to a maximum 3 year lifecycle (eg availability of spare parts for devices), so having a four year lifecycle turns out to be difficult (and therefore expensive?) to deliver in terms of maintenance, warranty and support.

    Lesson 3: Downtime is unacceptable

    You only deliver a lesson once – so if your students laptop isn’t working at the time they need, you disrupt their education. So processes for effective management of this need to be in place – even down to flat batteries. If you don’t do this effectively, it can lead teachers to only exploiting the IT in homework assignments, rather than relying on them in real-time in the classroom

    Lesson 4: Management

    Many of the devices were deployed without effective and efficient device management – meaning students often had to return their devices to IT to have things sorted out. And it became difficult for schools to manage them effectively because of the high cost of the skilled staff needed to implement effective management (a quote: The skills required to run a well –managed fleet are unaffordable for most schools, and not just for purely financial reasons. A quality IT desktop manager has an annual salary around $90,000 to $120,000. A school principal has a salary of $80,000 to $130,000)

    Lesson 5: Professional Development

    Without an effective programme of professional development for teachers, there’s a danger of a wasted opportunity to support the change in teaching and learning that programmes like the DER provide. The recommendation of the report is to ensure that PD is part of the requirement, and the procurement, rather than assuming it will happen some other way.


    Chapter 3 – Digital Revolutionary Ideas

    The first section in this chapter makes a very powerful argument – that the idea of giving personal ownership of a device to students from Year 9 for 4 years is fatally flawed. This is because the student needs ramp up over those 4 years, and the critical year in which students will need the full power of their devices (ie Year 12, when they are producing their major works) is exactly the point at which their devices are becoming obsolete, will be unable the run the latest software, and will have the least reliability).

    The diagram below, from the report, summarises it really well: 

    DER student laptop lifecycle diagram



    Chapter Four: Bring Your Own Device

    I’m not going to summarise this chapter in detail, but instead recommend that you read the detail in the report.

    The story that is told within this section is that the DER model of 1:1 devices for Years 9-12 is unlikely to be sustainable in the future, for a variety of reasons, and that therefore other models need to be also explored. For example, the virtualisation of the desktop for students, so that they can log on to any device to work. This removes the need for every student to have a dedicated personal device, and means that they can have different devices for different tasks (eg in Year 12 they may be using advanced computers to handle complex graphics or video editing needs, and small and light laptops for writing projects in a flexible learning space). The report continues this theme through to the final fifth chapter, and suggests alternative implementation models which are designed to reduce cost, provide better support for learning scenarios, and make IT management easier for schools.

    If you’re responsible

  • Education

    Microsoft and the Cloud – what it means for education


    There’s recently been a lot of discussion within education about different models of ICT services. Individual universities have tended to use a mix of services provided on-premise and cloud-based services . And newer models of teaching and learning have accelerated the trend towards cloud-based services – and at the very least, services which absolutely rely on a 100% reliable Internet connection. And this hybrid model, relying on both on-premise and cloud-based ICT infrastructure, looks like it is going to become more common across education.

    But this doesn’t just affect education – the integration of on-premise and cloud-based services is a hot topic for all IT Directors across business and the public sector, from small local businesses to global enterprises, and for all levels of government agencies and departments.

    How do all of the dots join up in this new IT services picture? Well, thinking about it has prompted me to write a summary of what’s going on with cloud-based services at Microsoft, to fill in some of the picture from an education viewpoint.

    Microsoft Online Services and Education

    imageWe’ve made a public big shift in our emphasis towards cloud-based services; but behind the scenes there have been very big changes going on for years to get ready for the day that cloud takes off right across the world.

    I’m going to use ‘Cloud’ to represent all of the Internet services that users and institutions might be using. It might be a mix of desktop and web-based software, or an entirely web-based service. Either way, it’s something that involves a web-service as part of the IT delivery.


    So here’s my summary of the cloud-based services that Microsoft do that may be directly relevant to education, and the essential differences.

    The first two services, Live@edu and Office 365 for education are education-specific, and not available outside of education. The other services are designed for a wide range of business and public sector customers, so you’ll see some overlap between the different services. Although that can feel like duplication, it also means that you’re able to select your online services rather like an a la carte menu – choosing the combination of options to match your exact needs.


    Live@edu is a free hosted service, designed specifically for education, which allows you to outsource some of your IT infrastructure to the cloud. The starting point for many is email, where you keep your existing email domain ( and point it over to our email servers – and we then run an Exchange 2010 mail service from our data centres for you, with each student getting a 10GB email inbox. As part of the service, each student gets their own Windows Live ID, which also means that they can use the hosted SkyDrive service too – with 7GB of personal file storage hosted on the web for each student.

    How do you buy it?

    As it’s free, you can simply sign up directly at the Live@edu site

    Where to find out more

    Visit the worldwide Live@edu website

    Office 365 for education logoOffice 365 for education

    Office 365 for education, which will be available from the (northern hemisphere) summer is a hosted service, designed specifically for education, which allows you to outsource a large set of your IT infrastructure to the cloud. The starting point for many, like Live@edu, is email and calendars, but the key additional functionality in Office 365 is the whole productivity suite offered by Office 365 online – SharePoint, Lync, Office Web Apps etc. So you could use Office 365 for education for something as complex (and money saving) as replacing your existing telephone system!

    How do you buy it?

    You have to wait until it’s available shortly, and until then I’d suggest you have a chat with your Microsoft account manager.

    Where to find out more

    Read more about pricing, and then jump over to worldwide Office 365 for education website

    imageWindows Azure

    Windows Azure is Microsoft’s cloud computing operating system. This is essentially a set of services that developers, software vendors and systems integrators can use to develop applications and new business models. We host the servers in the cloud, running cloud versions of the same platforms that would normally run in-house – things like web servers or highly-available SQL servers. The developers use exactly the same tools as today to develop their applications (eg Visual Studio) on their own desktop/in-house machines, and then they can choose to deploy locally or onto Windows Azure in the cloud.

    Because our job is to run an agile, efficient, secure and trustworthy central service through our worldwide datacentres, it means that the developers don’t need to worry about building and managing virtual machines, patching operating systems, and designing their own redundancy system. That’s the Azure team’s job.

    The Windows Azure Platform also allows you to integrate your on-premise and cloud infrastructure.

    How do you buy it?

    It is based on a pay-as-you-go subscription, calculated on the volume of data/workload that’s used. In a sense it is very similar to a normal utility, like gas and electricity – you use as much as you want, and pay for what you use. And just like the electricity company, it’s our job to make sure the capacity is there when you want to use it. It also allows you to convert capital expenditure into resource expenditure – because you aren’t buying big fixed capital infrastructure – just simply renting the capacity you need, when you need it.

    Where to find out more


    Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online

    This is a cloud-based customer relationship management service that can be accessed through Outlook or an Internet browser, and has rich integration with Office applications – Word, Excel and Communicator. It’s a comprehensive service which includes marketing automation, sales force automation, and customer service and support capabilities, as well as integrated workflow and business intelligence. In education, this is most likely to be valuable to independent schools, colleges and universities.

    The beauty of this cloud service is that you can start a deployment in a small way, without having to build your own infrastructure, and then grow it as you need to. The cloud system is built on the same code as the on-premise system, so you can move between deployment options in the future.

    How do you buy it?

    It’s so easy that you can simply sign up for a subscription, using a credit card. But the majority of education customers will choose to work with a Microsoft partner here in Australia to get the system setup and configured for your needs – and there are already a bunch of partners who offer education products (eg student recruitment systems) based on Dynamics CRM.

    Where to find out more

    And yes, there’s a free trial (available on the link above)


    Microsoft Private Cloud Infrastructure

    This is a set of resources, products, and management tools that allows you to run your own private cloud (or contract another organisation to do it for you), using the best practice techniques that we have developed for our cloud infrastructure. It enables you to dynamically pool, allocate, and manage resources to deliver flexible/agile Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Capabilities like self-service portals let your end-users rapidly consume IT services by self-provisioning (and decommissioning) infrastructure on a shared server fabric, virtualised by Windows Server Hyper-V and managed by System Center. Departments are thus able to deploy their applications with a lot more speed and agility. This allows your own IT team to focus their time on solving business problems rather than worrying about keeping the basic infrastructure running. It provides a less complex, more agile and more efficient infrastructure, in-house. And there’s also a hybrid model, where you contract a service hoster to provider a ‘virtual private cloud’, perhaps as a top-up to your in-house infrastructure.

    How do you buy it?

    Well, because it is based on a set of best practice advice, you’ll find that the key components are being built into the products you already have – like Windows Server 2008 and Hyper-V – and the Systems Management Server products. And in addition, we’re releasing free toolkits – like the Dynamic Infrastructure Toolkit for System Center and the Dynamic Data Centre Toolkit for Hosters.

    Where to find out more


    Office Web Apps

    The Office Web Apps are online companions for Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote. Office Web Apps provide quick viewing of Office documents and basic editing capabilities. There are three methods of accessing Office Web Apps.

    • Individuals (eg your students off campus) can use the Web Apps in Windows Live, and the files are stored online in their webspace on their SkyDrive.
    • For institutional use, they can be hosted on premise on your SharePoint 2010 or they can be hosted with Microsoft Online. In this mode, files are stored within your infrastructure. It is mainly intended as a companion to the full Office suite, but available over the web when you don’t have Office installed, or when it speeds up sharing and collaboration.
    • Office Web Apps is included within the Live@edu and the Office 365 for education services (see above)
    How do you buy it?

    Individuals can access it on Windows Live using their Windows Live ID. For institutional use, every licence for Office 2010 under a volume licence scheme (such as a Select licence) includes an additional licence for Office Web Apps.

    Where to find out more

    imageForefront Online Protection for Exchange

    This is a fully hosted service for managing the inbound and outbound flow of e-mail, through e-mail gateways with multiple filters that provide organizations with a defence against e-mail-borne malware, including spam, viruses, phishing scams, and e-mail policy violations. In addition, the service has a Web-based administrative console for writing rules to help enforce your organisation policies governing e-mail usage (eg limiting which domains users can send/receive email from etc)

    How do you buy it?

    You would normally buy it through your existing volume licence agreement, on a per-user or per-device basis.

    Where to find out more

    imageWindows InTune

    This is a cloud service for managing Windows PCs over the web. It allows you to use a single web-based console, with tools for updates, malware protection, troubleshooting, remote assistance, security policy configuration and desktop virtualisation. The aim is to simplify PC management and improve the end-user experience. 

    It is ideal for smaller networks, such as managing a primary school network, or a remote network in a university which isn’t fully managed through your existing IT infrastructure.

    How do you buy it?

    You will pay per-device, per-month, and it can be purchased individually, or as part of your existing volume licence agreement.

    Where to find out more

  • Education

    Less than two years to go before Windows XP is unsupported

    Windows XP logoThere’s still a sizeable proportion of computers in schools, TAFEs and universities that are running Windows XP. Whilst I know that some staff will like this (after all, they have a reputation for resisting change), it does mean that students are probably getting the worst deal.

    97% of students have their own PC at home - and the overwhelming majority will be running Windows 7 on it.

    And then they come into the classroom. And they are expected to use a computer running Windows XP - an operating system that was launched in 2001. And that doesn’t do any of the cool, media savvy things that they can do on their home computer.

    What’s my point?

    Students are used to living, working, collaborating and communicating in a digital age. And if we want them to be engaged in the classroom, then perhaps asking them to turn their clocks back ten years when they switch on a computer isn’t fair, and isn’t going to engage them.

    So, to put it into perspective, here’s ten things that your students have never lived without - and which didn’t even exist when we launched Windows XP…

    Ten things that didn’t exist when Windows XP was launched in over 11 years ago

    1. The iPod (came along in November 2001)
    2. Xbox (also November 2001)
    3. iTunes for Windows (that didn’t arrive until April 2003, nearly two years after the iPod)
    4. 3G phones (didn’t arrive in Australia until April 2003 either)
    5. LinkedIn (that wasn’t invented until May 2003)
    6. Skype (August 2003)
    7. Facebook (that arrived in February of 2004)
    8. Xbox 360 (ie the connected one. That arrived in May 2005)
    9. Video chat as part of MSN Messenger (came along in August 2005)
    10. Video chat in Skype (even later, January 2006)

    So if you’re still running any Windows XP in your network, and your users are using them, then not only are you leaving them living in the last decade, you’ve also got the added risk on the horizon of running an unsupported operating system (see info here on end of support for Windows XP, due April 2014)

    Please make sure you’ve got a plan to fix that…

  • Education

    How would you make a job advert for a teacher attractive? They’ve done it for school bus drivers


    I’ve written before about the impending teacher shortage in Australia (more about the Australian Teacher shortage here and here). And then I saw this set of adverts, from the side of Southland School Buses in Canada, and marvelled at the way they’ve made being a school bus driver sound attractive:


    So here’s a job that’s important to schools, and they are obviously having difficulty finding employees. Exactly the same challenge that will apply to teacher recruitment in the future. And the pay’s not great either (here in Australia, working at a supermarket checkout pays more than $16.25 an hour).

    How to recruit teachers effectively?

    It got me thinking – if you had to break the mould on teacher recruitment, and actually make the job attractive, what would you say? As opposed to the current model, which is to advertise a list of jobs and the capacities you want in an applicant, and do very little to sell the job to motivate people to apply (and from some terrible stories I’ve read, sometimes do little to motivate people once they’ve applied).

    Here’s a weekend challenge: What could you say about a teacher’s job to motivate somebody to apply?

    All ideas into the comments box below…. (you may need to click on the story headline above to get the page with the comments box)

    Need inspiration? Take a look at the Southland video adverts for school bus drivers on YouTube

  • Education

    The 6 weirdest blog search queries


    Every now and again, people end up on this blog because it shows up in a Bing/Google/Yahoo search. Sometimes it’s about things you’d expect (it’s great that it appears as the number 2 result for ‘SharePoint school websites’ or number 1 for ‘accessibility of SharePoint’).

    But sometimes the search terms that people use amaze me.

    So here, for nothing more than entertainment, are the top 6 weirdest search engine queries that led people to this blog online:

    1. Can I make my email replies look like I’m out of office when I’m not? (got them to this page)
      What? You want to make it look like you’re not in the office. Surely somebody can just walk by your desk and spot the trick?
      • How to make beautiful school (got them to this page)
        At least I understand why you’d ask this. And fortunately, the page they get will show them to pretty up their website! Oh, and go me, I’m the first result in Google for that search Smile
        • I’m out of the office (got them to this page too)
          Why would anybody type that into a search engine? Maybe a journey of self-discovery
          • How to win a ward (got them to this page)
            Please tell me they weren’t trying to win a new hospital wing
            • Do I need a job title? (got them to this page)
              I cannot imagine any reason to type that into a search engine
              • Describe how using Microsoft technologies in your solution helped you win against the competition(got them to this page )
                This is just like copying your homework from somebody else. It was one of the questions on the form to enter for Microsoft Education Partner of the Year, and obviously somebody was looking for some help!

              Anybody other bloggers have any experience of this and want to share your examples?

            • Education

              Do you really need a Learning Management System?


              I was reading a blog post from Jonathan Rees earlier – a Professor of History at Colorado State University – where he discusses briefly the usage of the Learning Management System (LMS) (‘An uncharacteristically subtle post for me’). It was accompanied by a chart showing the use of different components of their Learning Management System (I suspect this could be many LMSs, in many, many other institutions).

              LMS Usage

              The point I inferred from his blog post is that, most of the time, the data show that users are using their Learning Management System to do things that are basic features (like document sharing) and these are the things you don’t really need an LMS for, because you could achieve it on almost any web platform.

              So if your staff are using a Learning Management System as a place to share documents, make announcements, and publish student marks, would you actually be better off just using the standard platform your institution probably has in place already and linked to your existing IT systems and identity system (like SharePoint or Office 365), rather than having a completely separate IT system dedicated to it?

              Is this pattern created by a procurement mindset of “Let’s list all of the things we could possibly do, and they buy the thing that meets all of those needs”? The risk is that the focus becomes the delivery of the features, and not the use of them.

              In the example above, if only 1% of your users actually use wikis within their course, does that justify the need for everybody to have it?

              I believe that in the future we’re going to see people choosing systems that give them the core functionality as a platform to build on, and then adding the parts they need for specific groups of users; not specifying an all-singing, all-dancing system from day one which has absolutely everything you need built from the ground up before any users have started using the system and experimenting. We’re going to see the shift to more agile systems, and more agile developments to support the way that users use their enterprise-wide systems.

              So, does that mean you don’t need an LMS? And if not, what do you need?

            • Education

              Students and Technology - what can we learn from US research?


              Students and Technology Research

              Somehow I missed this at the time, but have just caught up with The ECAR National Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology Report from 2011, published by EDUCAUSE (an education group from the United States).


              They surveyed 3,000 students from 1,179 colleges and universities in the US.

              The key conclusions that they arrived at were:

              • Students are drawn to hot technologies, but they rely on more traditional devices
              • Students report technology delivers major academic benefits
              • Students report uneven perceptions of institutions' and instructors' use of technology
              • Facebook generation students juggle personal and academic interactions
              • Students prefer, and say they learn more in, classes with online components

              Students and Technology Infographic

              Like many reports these days, they also produced a nice infographic which summarises the key data.

              It seems that students own a massive amount of technology! Just imagine all of these devices fighting for space on their desktops!What devices do students own?

              And they also have positive opinions on the IT services that their institution provides – things like course registration (much more important in the US, as students regularly sign up for min-courses during their full course), publishing grades and making resources and transcripts available.

              What online services students like

                In addition to the full report, there’s also a set of PowerPoint slides available (PPTX - PPT - PDF) which goes into the data in more detail. For example, on slide 29, there’s a chart showing the technologies they wished their instructors used more. It surprised me to see that email was the top item that they wanted to see their instructors to use more. It’s also interesting to me that the technologies that innovators talk so much about (blogs, wikis, social studying sites) are a lot lower down the list. If I read this right, students appear to be asking in the survey for teachers to get the basics right – good communication on email, good use of LMS, good use of presentation software – instead of bringing in fancy new technologies.

                As one respondent said "I wish instructors e-mailed more so that students and teachers could communicate easier, faster, and more efficiently."

                What technologies do students want to see teachers using more

                  Learn MoreRead the full ECAR National Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology Report


                  Page 39 of 79 (786 items) «3738394041»