It has many names; Faceted Search, Refinement UI, Search within Search and it’s a feature that’s frequently requested.  Both Search Server 2008 Express and SharePoint Server 2007 Search can display faceted results with just a little customization work using the samples available on CodePlex here -

Facets are implemented and administered as managed properties, so HTML pages, Office documents, SharePoint lists, database tables, web services - in fact, any content source indexed by MOSS can be made available as a facet.

Leonid Lyublinski
MCS Consultant