In my first post on this subject last week, I referred to a scene in the movie “Minority Report” as a visionary example of a natural user interfaces (NUIs) and, more to the theme of this blog, a visionary example of ad hoc search within a NUI. I realize that I didn’t offer a definition of NUIs in that post, so, before I go back to the search connection, here’s a quick primer.
Natural user interfaces or NUIs rely on natural expressions like touches and gestures to directly and intuitively control the experience of a software application. The word “natural” means that the interaction is not controlled through an artificial device, like a mouse or keyboard. (I take this to imply that a Nintendo Wii is not an example of a NUI, since there are still artificial controllers involved. Other opinions and thoughts on this are welcomed).
NUIs have been described as the next evolutionary step in human-computer interaction – the successor to graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which succeeded command line interfaces (CLIs), which succeeded physical input devices like card readers. Touch screens on hand-held devices are the most common examples of NUIs, but there are number of other emerging NUI platforms and technologies. This article on touch computing from PC Magazine offers a catalog of some of the systems currently available.
One of the technologies mentioned in the PC Magazine story is Microsoft Surface. Microsoft Surface is a Windows powered device in the form factor of a table - a coffee table, if you will - with a surface that supports touch and gesture interaction. There are other NUI platforms, but there are a couple things that make Microsoft Surface different and interesting.
First, the Microsoft Surface form factor and interface are designed to allow multiple users to interact with the device at the same time. The interface can detect and track dozens of touch points simultaneously. It can even recognize the orientation of fingers prints and infer, in turn, the physical orientation of a user relative to the display. Because of these capabilities, many applications created for Microsoft Surface emphasize multi-user collaboration and interaction – for example, there are multi-user games and other collaborative consumer applications for things like music and picture sharing.
Second, Microsoft Surface devices have built-in cameras that can not only track touches and gestures, but can recognize digitally tagged objects and can initiate specific actions when these objects are placed on the table. For example, Infusion Development has created an application designed to enhance the doctor patient consultation experience. By placing a tagged card on Microsoft Surface, doctors can use and access interactive cardiac images, dynamic charts and clinical documents to help explain medical conditions and procedures to their patients.
NUIs: Where’s the Search?
I was wowed by my first experience with Microsoft Surface - as many are when the first get a chance to play with one - but being a search guy, I looked for applications that included some sort of search function. So far, of the NUI applications I’ve seen to date, whether on Microsoft Surface or in other NUI technologies, I’ve seen very few that provide true ad hoc search. In one or two examples I’ve seen, a virtual keyboard is used to enter search terms and traditional GUI search metaphors are used to render search results. More often, though, finding information requires the user to navigate through some pre-defined structure. Even this TouchWall demo by Bill Gates from last year’s CEO Summit focused on navigation. Where’s the search?
I’ll grant that structural navigation metaphors in NUIs are really cool and work pretty well. For example, I’ve seen a medical app that allows you to visually navigate a representation of the human body to explore different anatomical concepts. You can tap on the virtual head to explore the brain and then drill down further to learn about neurons. It looks like a fun and an interesting way to explore human anatomy, but the problem with this navigation-only approach is that if you don’t happen to know that neurons are in the brain, it will take you a while to find them. It is browsing, not ad hoc search and, as we learned from the Yahoo Directory experience back in the 90s, people tend to prefer searching over browsing.
A Prototype and a Request
At our FASTforward’09 user conference in Las Vegas in February, we showed a prototype application, built in collaboration with a very sharp team of developers at EMC Consulting, which brought together ad hoc search and the natural user interface experience of Microsoft Surface. You can see a short video of this demo here, or the longer keynote presentation from the event here.
When Mark Stone, Global Enterprise Search Lead at EMC Consulting, and I first conceived this demo, we were inspired by three things:
1) The dramatic growth and potential of NUI technologies, particularly Microsoft Surface.
2) The dearth of search examples in all these NUI applications.
3) The potential for creating transformative user experiences that combine search and NUIs .
You can judge for yourself how successful the team was in combining ad hoc search with Microsoft Surface by looking at the demos, but one thing is for sure, we were in uncharted waters when building this app. The user interface patterns for search within a NUI are not well established. Even without considering search, building user interfaces in Microsoft Surface requires setting aside the old GUI models and learning brand new patterns and metaphors. As for search in a NUI, well, what are the equivalents to the search box, the search result list, navigation facets, document links, and all the interaction patterns around this “controls”? How can we use a 3rd dimension (“depth”) and what role does “zoom” play in search? Working within a NUI environment even challenges the basic containers of information. Should you first show documents, or just extracted facts and information summaries? All these questions and more came up during the development of this prototype. Some of the answers are now known, or at least we have a better feel for the right direction to go, but others require more research and experimentation.
There is the opportunity here, and a challenge to be met by the search community. NUIs are here to stay and are demanding new patterns for true ad hoc search that satisfy the intuitive and natural interaction requirements of these environments. Reverting to browsing metaphors is not the answer; nor is simply recreating the GUI patterns of keyword search boxes and lists of blue links.
I’m very interested in this topic and am on a hunt for any good examples of true search within NUIs. If you know of an example, please send whatever pointer you can - links to demo videos, screen shots, academic papers, … anything. You can respond to this post or email me directly.
I look forward to seeing your examples and will summarize what I find in a future post.
In the mean time, I feel like we need a new name for search interfaces within NUIs. I like the phrase “Natural Search Interface” used by the Microsoft Germany Partner site in reference to the Microsoft/EMC Consulting prototype. I’ll use that.