HPC Basic Profile Web Service or the HPCBP for short, is a web service, built using the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) that provides access to some of HPCS 2008’s core job submission functionality. 

Over the last few years, using an open process within the Open Grid Forum (OGF), developers from industry and research from both the open source and commercial software communities, have come to agreement on the web service interface and protocols that can provide greatest interoperability. These set of specifications are encapsulated within the HPC Basic Profile 1.0.
In this 5 parts video, Steven Newhouse, our HPC BP program manager gives a lecture on the details of HPC Basic Profile, the Microsoft SDK, examples of how to submit a job using java client, pre-staging files, and starting a SOA session.

http://channel9.msdn.com/shows/The+HPC+Show/

Here are some great links on grid computing:  (thanks, Dave for the additional pointers)

Good source for broad information:
For Science:  International Science Grid This Week (online mag)
http://www.isgtw.org/
In General:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_computing

Two major science grid efforts in the US:
The Open Science Grid  http://www.opensciencegrid.org
The TeraGrid http://www.teragrid.org/

Other grid related projects:
The major European grid effort related to the LHC high-energy physics
experiment, called LCG, http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG/
A European grid project  called NorduGrid  http://www.nordugrid.org/
The UK e-science program http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Science
Sun's grid effort: http://www.sun.com/service/sungrid/index.jsp