J.D. Meier's Blog

Software Engineering, Project Management, and Effectiveness

April, 2010

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    New Release: Microsoft Enterprise Library 5.0

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    patterns & practices Enterprise Library 5.0 is now available on MSDN.   Microsoft Enterprise Library (EntLib) is a collection of application blocks (reusable software components) designed to address common cross-cutting concerns (data access, exception handling, logging, validation, ...etc.)  EntLib provides source code, test cases, and docs that you can use "as is" or extend as you see fit.  The goal of EntLib is to codify Microsoft recommended and proven practices for .NET application development.

    What's New in 5.0
    Enterprise Library 5.0 brings the following to the table:

    • Major architectural refactoring that provides improved testability and maintainability through full support of the dependency injection style of development
    • Dependency injection container independence (Unity ships with Enterprise Library, but you can replace Unity with a container of your choice)
    • Programmatic configuration support, including a fluent configuration interface and an XSD schema to enable IntelliSense
    • Redesign of the configuration tool to provide: a more usable and intuitive look and feel, extensibility improvements through meta-data driven configuration visualizations that replace the requirement to write design time code, a wizard framework that can help to simplify complex configuration tasks
    • Data accessors for more intuitive processing of data query results
    • Asynchronous data access support
    • Honoring validation attributes between Validation Application Block attributes and DataAnnotations
    • Integration with Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) validation mechanisms
    • Support for complex configuration scenarios, including additive merge from multiple configuration sources and hierarchical merge
    • Optimized cache scavenging
    • Better performance when logging
    • Support for the .NET 4.0 Framework and integration with Microsoft Visual Studio 2010
    • Improvements to Unity: Streamlined configuration schema, a simplified API for static factories and interception, the capability to add interface implementation through interception, additional types of lifetime manager, deferred resolution (automatic factories), a reduction of the number of assemblies

    Key Links

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    Extreme Programming (XP) at a Glance

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    Extreme Programming (XP) is a lightweight software development methodology based on principles of simplicity, communication, feedback, and courage.   I like to be able to scan methodologies to compare approaches.  To do so, I create a skeleton of the activities, artifacts, principles, and practices.    Here are my notes on XP:

    Activities

    • Coding
    • Testing
    • Listening
    • Designing

    Artifacts

    • Acceptance tests
    • Code
    • Iteration plan
    • Release and iteration plans
    • Stories
    • Story cards
    • Statistics about the number of tests, stories per iteration, etc.
    • Unit tests
    • Working code every iteration

    12 Practices
    Here's the 12 XP practices:

    • Coding Standards
    • Collective Ownership
    • Continuous Integration
    • On-Site Customer
    • Pair Programming
    • Planning Game
    • Refactoring
    • Short Releases
    • Simple Design
    • Sustainable Pace
    • System Metaphor
    • Test-Driven Development

    For a visual of the XP practices, see a picture of the Practices and Main Cycles of XP.

    5 Values (Extreme Programming Explained)

    • Communication
    • Courage
    • Feedback
    • Respect
    • Simplicity

    Phases
    The following are phases of an XP project life cycle.

    • Exploration Phase
    • Planning Phase
    • Iteration to Release Phase
    • Productionizing Phase
    • Maintenance Phase

    For a visual overview, see Agile Modeling Throughout the XP Lifecycle.

    12 Principles (Agile Manifesto)

    These are the 12 Agile principles according to the  Agile Manifesto:

    • Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
    • Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.
    • Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
    • Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
    • Build projects around motivated individuals.  Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
    • The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
    • Working software is the primary measure of progress.
    • Agile processes promote sustainable development.   The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
    • Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
    • Simplicity–the art of maximizing the amount of work not done–is essential.
    • The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
    • At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
    4 Values (Agile Manifesto)

    These are the four Agile values according to the Agile Manifesto:

    • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
    • Working software over comprehensive documentation
    • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
    • Responding to change over following a plan
    Additional Resources
    My Related Posts
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    Ralph Stacey’s Agreement and Certainty Matrix

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    Ralph Stacey’s Agreement and Certainty Matrix is a tool for helping you adapt and adopt processes more effectively.

    Rick Stacey Agreement and Certainty Matrix

    It helps you make more informed decisions by looking at two dimensions:

    • The degree of certainty
    • The level of agreement 

    Rather than just rolling out changes in processes or tools and hoping for the best, or getting mired in politics and bureaucracy, Ralph Stacey’s agreement and certainty matrix helps you choose the most effective management actions.

    This tool is more effective where you have significant diversity in complexity (levels of agreement and degrees of certainty) and where you have a wide range of approaches you can take (versus the one-size fits all approach.)

    The Five Zones of Agreement and Certainty
    Here is a quick visual of the five zones of agreement and certainty:

      Rick Stacey Agreement and Certainty Matrix - 5 Zones

    Zone Notes
    1. Close to Agreement, Close to Certainty You have agreement on the outcomes and you are certain how to get there. Plan actions to achieve outcomes and monitor the results against the plans. Repeat what works.
    2. Far from Agreement, Close to Certainty You have certainty on how to achieve outcomes, but you don't have agreement on the outcomes you want. Plans and shared missions don't work. This is where people play politics. Coalition building, negotiation, and compromise are used for agendas and direction.
    3. Close to Agreement, Far from Certainty You have agreement on the outcomes you want, but aren't certaint how to get there. Monitoring against a plan won't work. A shared mission or vision might work. The goal is to head towards the end-in-mind, even though you don't know the specific paths up front.
    4. Far from Agreement, Far from Certainty (Anarchy) You have a high level of uncertainty and disagreement. Traditional methods of planning, visioning and negotiation are ineffective. What happens here is often avoidance (avoiding the issues where there is disagreement and uncertainty.) This is a short-term protective strategy that leads to long-term disaster.
    5. The Edge of Chaos (The Zone of Complexity) This is where traditional management approaches are ineffective, but this is where you can use innovation and creativity to break with the past to create new modes of operating.

    For more information on Ralph Stacey’s Agreement and Certainty Model, see Edgeware – Aides.

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    Scrum Flow at a Glance

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    When I analyze process flows, I like to see them at a glance, in terms of activities and artifacts.  This helps me compare it with other approaches to find similarities and differences.  This is my view of Scrum at a glance:

      Activities Artifacts
    Product Backlog
    • Product backlog review
    • Identify user-prioritized stories
    • Identify themes
    • Identify priorities
    • Identify size (T-shirt sizes)
    • Selected Product Backlog
    • Stories
    Sprint Planning
    • Identify the sprint goal
    • Identify the sprint duration
    • Break stories into tasks
    • Estimate the tasks
    • Sprint Backlog
    • Duration
    • List of tasks
    • Estimates
    • Sprint View
    Daily Work
    • Daily Scrum Meeting
    • Identify what got done
    • Identify what to get done
    • Identify impediments
    • Update Sprint Backlog (time remaining for each task)
    • Update Sprint Burndown Chart
    • Burndown Chart
    • Sprint Backlog
    • Impediment List
    • Story Cards
    Sprint Review
    • Present the Sprint results
    • Demo to stakeholders
    • Update product burndown chart
    • Product Increment
    • Demo
    Release
    • Release a product increment
    • Product increment
    Retrospective
    • Retrospective
    • Identify what went well
    • Identify what to improve
    • Identify actionable improvements with owners and dates (these could become sprint tasks.)
    -

    The Talk-Through Version …
    From the product backlog, you identify a product increment to execute.  For Sprint planning, you identify the goal, the sprint duration, the relevant stories, and the tasks.  To do so, you break the stories into tasks.  You estimate the tasks.

    As part of daily work, you have a daily standup meeting, identify what got done, what will get done, and any impediments.  You update the Sprint backlog and Sprint burndown charts.

    At part of the Sprint review, you demo the product increment to stakeholders and you update the product burndown chart.

    After release, you perform a retrospective, to identify what went well, and what to improve.

    If you have any feedback or suggestions on how to improve my scannable view, please share.

    Many thanks to James Waletzky for review and feedback.

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    7 Management Interventions for Adapting and Adopting Processes

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    Change management is an art and science.  There are tools for improving effectiveness.

    7 Management Interventions for Adapting and Adopting Processes

    The Rick Stacey's Agreement and Certainty Matrix evaluates the level of agreement and degree of certainty about the issue or problem.  This helps you choose the more effective management actions for successfully adapting and adopting your processes.  Dr. Stephen Lamed revised Stacey's Agreement and Certainty Matrix by adding a diagonal line and placing 7 different management interventions.

    7 Management Interventions for Adapting and Adopting Processes
    The 7 management interventions are:

    1. Direct
    2. Change Work Processes
    3. Modify Structure
    4. Convene and Intervene
    5. Convene
    6. Examine, Describe Patterns
    7. Seek Patterns

    The following table summarizes Lamed’s advice:

    Intervention Notes
    1. Direct Direct workers to complete tasks.
    2. Change Work Processes Change the work processes to support self-organization, self direction.
    3. Modify Structure Change the diversity, information, and connections.
    4. Convene and Intervene Bring representatives together to support self-organization and emergence. Use process tools for change. Compare with and without goals.
    5. Convene Bring representatives together to support self-organization and emergence.
    6. Examine, Describe Patterns Observe the interactions between complex adaptive systems that are beyond the leader's ability to affect or convene.
    7. Seek Patterns Scan systems for emerging organizations and patterns.

    For more information, see Edgeware-Aides – Moving from Agreement and Certainty.

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    The Four Circles of XP (Extreme Programming)

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    When I first learned eXtreme Programming (XP), my mentors introduced it using four circles.  I really liked how the four circles made it easy to remember the XP practices, and I liked how it made them easier to remember.  This post is a walkthrough of the four circles of XP.

    The Four Circles of XP
    The four circles of XP:

    • Coding Circle
    • Team Circle
    • Process Circle
    • Product Circle

    The four circles group the XP practices in a simple way:

    • Coding Circle - Pair Programming, Refactoring, Testing
    • Team Circle - Coding Standards, Collective Ownership, Continuous Integration
    • Process Circle - 40-hour Week, Metaphor, Simple Design, Short Releases
    • Product Circle - On-site Customer, Planning Game

    For an explanation of the XP practices see XP Practices (Wikipedia).

    The Four Circles of XP at a Glance
    Here is a view of the XP practices at a glance:

    The Four Circles of XP - 1

    The Coding Circle
    The Coding Circle includes Pair-Programming, Refactoring, and Testing.  Here is a view of the Coding Circle highlighted:

    The Four Circles of XP - 2

    The Team Circle
    The Team Circle includes Coding Standards, Collective Ownership, and Continuous Integration.  Here is a view of the Team Circle highlighted:

    The Four Circles of XP - 3

    The Process Circle
    The Process Circle includes 40-Hour Week, Metaphor, Short Releases, and Simple Design.  Here is a view of the Process Circle highlighted:

     

    The Four Circles of XP - 4

    The Product Circle
    The Product Circle includes Planning and On-Site Customer.  Here is a view of the Product Circle highlighted:

    The Four Circles of XP - 5

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    Finding Your Strengths

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    At Microsoft, I learned to keep my energy strong while making things happen.  The best ways I’ve found to do that are follow my growth and follow my passion.  Another way, that’s very important, is to play to my strengths.  Spending time in my strengths is the key to hitting the high notes and getting exponential results.  It keeps me strong, my energy high, and produces more impactful results in less amount of time.

    Whenever I find myself drained, all I need to do is take a look at where I’ve been spending my time.  Sure enough, it’s always from spending too much time in my weaknesses and not enough time in my strengths.   That’s the interesting lesson too … I can spend more time in my weaknesses, as long as I’m spending enough time in my strengths.

    By strengths, I’m not talking about the skills I’ve learned.  I’m talking about my natural strengths – the ones that I can count on no matter what.  I didn’t find my strengths over night and it’s a continuous process of gaining clarity and precision.  The key here is knowing the language.  When you know what to look for, it’s easier to find your own strengths, label them, and use them to your advantage.

    34 Key Strengths
    Marcus Buckingham and Donald O. Clifton, Ph.D. identified 34 key signature themes of strength.  I have a brief description of each strength in my post, Finding Your Strengths.  Here are the 34 signature themes:

    • Achiever
    • Activator
    • Adaptability
    • Analytical
    • Arranger
    • Belief
    • Command
    • Communication
    • Competition
    • Connectedness
    • Context
    • Deliberative
    • Developer
    • Discipline
    • Empathy
    • Fairness
    • Focus
    • Futuristic
    • Harmony
    • Ideation
    • Inclusiveness
    • Individualization
    • Input
    • Intellection
    • Learner
    • Maximizer
    • Positivity
    • Relater
    • Responsibility
    • Restorative
    • Self-assurance
    • Significance
    • Strategic
    • Woo

    24 Signature Strengths
    Martin Seligman named a set of 24 Signature Strengths.  You can find out more about Martin Seligman’s work at the Authentic Happiness Center.  Here are Seligman’s 24 Signature Strengths:

    • Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence
    • Bravery and Valor
    • Capacity to Love and Be Loved
    • Caution, Prudence, and Discretion
    • Citizenship, Teamwork, and Loyalty
    • Creativity, Ingenuity, and Originality
    • Curiosity and Interest in the World
    • Fairness, Equity, and Justice
    • Forgiveness and Mercy
    • Gratitude
    • Honesty, Authenticity, and Genuineness
    • Hope, Optimism, and Future-mindedness
    • Humor and playfulness
    • Industry, Diligence, and Perseverance
    • Judgment, Critical Thinking, and Open-Mindedness
    • Kindness and Generosity
    • Leadership
    • Love of Learning
    • Modesty and Humility
    • Perspective  and Wisdom
    • Self-Control and Self-Regulation
    • Social Intelligence
    • Spirituality, Sense of Purpose, and Faith
    • Zest, Enthusiasm, and Energy

    How To Use These Strength Vocabularies
    One way to use these is to take their tests and find out what they say about you.  I do like the fact that they have framed and named the strengths which makes it easy to explore, test, and evaluate.  Personally, I’ve found more value by simply exploring the labels and using them as lenses.  I’ve been rationalizing them against the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as well as my own frames for strengths, looking for underlying patterns and practices. 

    At the end of the day, the most important thing for me has been finding where I get energy from, and finding what takes it away.   This leads me to a personalized strengths frame that I can use as a lens for investing in my portfolio of strengths … and this is the key to exponential results.

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    patterns & practices Catalog at a Glance

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    Periodically I create a simple summary table of our patterns & practices collection of assets.  This helps me analyze the collection as a catalog.  To keep it incredibly simple, I organize the catalog by guidance types.  This way, at a glance, I can see the collections of guides, patterns, factories, reference implementations, and EntLib.  In this case, I also added any work in progress that I was aware of to get a real bird’s-eye view of the catalog.

    Category Items
    Enterprise Library
    Reference Implementations
    Guides
    Patterns
    Factories

    * indicates in progress.

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    Best Practices on the patterns & practices Team

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    The Microsoft patterns & practices team has been around since 2000. The patterns & practices team builds prescriptive guidance for customers building applications on the Microsoft platform.  The primary mission is customer success on the platform.  As part of that mission, patterns & practices delivers guidance in the form of reusable libraries, in-tool experiences, patterns, and guides.  To put it another way, we deliver code-based and content-based guidance.

    I’ve been a part of the team since 2001.   Along the way, I’ve seen a lot of changes as our people, our processes, and our catalog of products have changed over time.  Recently, I took a step back to collect and reflect our best practices.  Some practices were more effective than others, we’ve added some new ones, and we’ve lost some along the way.  To help reflect and analyze the best practices, I created a map of the key practices organized by discipline.  In this post, I’ll share the map (note that it’s a work in progress.)  Special thanks to Ed Jezierski, Michael Kropp, Per Vonge Nielsen, Shaun Hayes, and Tom Hollander (all former patterns & practices team members) for their contributions and insights to the map.

    Best Practices by Discipline
    The following table is a map of the key practices used by the patterns & practices team over the years.

    Discipline Key Practices
    Management Team
    • Milestone Reviews
    • Product Portfolio (correlated with customer & business challenges/opportunities)
    • Team development  (leadership skills, communication skills, … etc.)
    • Backlog
    • Connection with customers and partners
    • Fireside chats
    • Meeting with key stakeholders in the app plat space
    • People review
    • Scorecard management
    • Tracking overall team budget
    • Weekly Status
    Architect
    • Articulate the inner (scope) and outer (context) architecture (these involve time)
    • Articulate technical principles - drive technical tradeoffs discussions
    • Be aware of roadmaps of the company, and build trust to make sure they are current
    • Be familiar with competitive tech.
    • Customer connection.
    • Groups’ technical strategy and product model.
    • Know actionable industry trends.
    • Overall design with functional breakdown.
    • Relationship with key influencers in the product groups.
    • Spikes / explorations including new approaches (technology and process)
    • Technical challenges
    Development Team
    • Ship running code / guidance at the end of each iteration
    • User Stories
    • XP / Scrum with test-driven-development
    • Continuous build and integration
    • Iterations
    • Retrospectives
    Product Management
    • Asset Model
    • Customer Surveys (feature voting, exit polls)
    • Standardized product model (app blocks, factories, guides, etc.)
    • Blogging throughout project (planning, development, release)
    • Case Studies
    • Community Lead
    • Customer Advisory Board
    • Customer Proof Points
    • Own Vision / Scope
    • Portfolio Planning
    • Project dashboard
    Program Management
    • Customer Connected Engineering (CCE)
    • Fix-time, Flex Scope
    • Scenarios / User Stories
    • 5 customers stand behind it
    • AAD Sessions (Accelerated Analysis and Design)
    • Backlog
    • Exec Sponsor
    • Product owner from M0 (Milestone 0)
    • Quality over scope
    • Scorecards
    Release Checklist
    • Release Checklist
    • Release Mail
    Test Team
    • Automated tests
    • Focused on overall quality (functionality is tested by dev)
    User Experience Team
    • Authoring Guide (Key practices for authors)
    • Content Spec (Content scenarios and outline)
    • Doc Tool (Template for standardizing content formatting)

    Some practices are obvious, while some of the names of the practices might not be.  For example, “Fireside chat” is the name of our monthly team meeting, which is an informal gathering and open dialogue.   I may drill into some of these practices in future posts, if there’s interest and there are key insights to share.

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    Getting Results the Agile Way: A Word from the Author

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    This is an excerpt from my latest book, Getting Results the Agile Way.  It's from the A Word from the Author section.  One of my reader's tells me that this was the most impactful prose for them.  I think because it answers the question, "Why did I write this guide?"  This is yet another reminder to me how important it is to lead with your why. Here it is ...

       “Results were the name of the game, and I didn’t have the playbook. When I first joined Microsoft more than 10 years ago, I was overwhelmed. It was a sink or swim environment. Every day I had to play catch up from the day before. I got more email than I could possibly read, more action items than I could possibly do, and challenges that were beyond my skills. Inside the team, we affectionately called this scenario, “trial by fire.” There were no boundaries to my days, each day bled into night, where I was consistently “burning the midnight oil.” It reminded me of the saying, “whatever doesn’t kill you, makes you stronger.”

       However, I hadn’t moved across the country, leaving everything and everyone I knew behind, to fail right off the bat. One of the first things I did to survive was study the best of the best. I found people in the company that got results and I learned from them. I learned everything I could about productivity from anybody who was willing to share their system with me.

       ...As I mentored people and teams around Microsoft to help them get results, I honed my system. It was one thing for me to get results, but it has been quite another to package it up for other people. Because I was continuously building new project teams, I needed a system for getting new people on each team up to speed quickly. As the saying goes, “necessity is the Mother of invention.” These challenges forced me to simplify my system, and lean it down to the most effective parts. The result is a tested system that’s scaled up to large teams, down to individuals, and is a system I can bet on time and again. The most important thing is simple, so if I fall off the horse, it’s easy to get back on.

       This guide is my attempt to give you the playbook that I wish somebody had given me so many years ago for getting results.”

    —Excerpt from “A Word from the Author”, J.D. Meier, Getting Results the Agile Way

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    Why Agile Results?

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    BookCoverSlate

    My book, Getting Results the Agile Way, puts together patterns, and practices for getting results in work and life.  At the heart of the guide, is "Agile Results" --  a simple and flexible system for meaningful results.  It supports you and helps you blend your time, energy, and skills for your best results.  To put it another way, it helps you “make the most of what you’ve got.”

    People ask me, "Why Agile Results?"  I've been trying to put my finger on why something so simple works so well ... I think it's the synthesis of:

    • Agile - respond to change, story-driven, value-driven, time is a first-class citizen ... etc.
    • The Rule of 3 - used from military to marketing for getting results and avoiding overload.  See The Rule of 3.
    • Lean - Demand driven, avoid getting stuck in the process, reduce open work, hack away at the unessential.
    • Scrum - Backlog + sprints to bite off what you can chew.
    • Stories - We're wired for stories, making meaning, emotional connection, … etc.
    • Positive psychology - Three things going well, focus on forward, … etc.
    • Strengths-focus - Spend more time where it matters, focus on energy over time, … etc.
    • Project management - Think in terms of projects, have a start and end, know the work, know your capacity and throughput, … etc.

    It's a lot compacted into a simple frame

    • Use 3 stories - 3 stories for your day, for your week, for your month, for your year, for your life.
    • Ride the rhythms of results - Focus on weekly results - Monday vision, daily outcomes, Friday reflection.  See Monday Vision, Daily Outcomes, and Friday Reflection.
    • Let things go and slough off – This is the art of letting the right things go to spend more time on the right things .
    • Catch your next best train ... set the trains to leave the station each day, each week, each month ... miss the train today, catch your next best one over dwell on the train you missed ... get up to bat time and again.

    All roads lead to the same town.  I was living Agile and Scrum long before they became vogue or I knew what they were.  I remember when Peter Provost joined our team years back and he told me I was already doing Agile.  I remember some years later when I described my approach to James Waletzky, he said I was doing Scrum.  

    In both cases, I was glad to have a name for it, but at the same time, I cared more about the underlying principles, patterns, and practices, as well as meaningful intersections.  In the bigger picture, I cared even more about how to take proven practices in software engineering and apply them to shape other aspects of life … to lead a life by design, not by default.

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    Seth Godin Lessons Learned

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    I suspect there are a lot of Seth Godin fans around Microsoft.  I take that back.  I know there are a lot of Seth Godin fans at Microsoft.  For all the Seth fans, I’ve distilled a set of lessons learned from Seth Godin.  

    It’s not a fluffy post.  It cuts deep on insight in work and life … ultimately, about finding your way in a Darwin world.  Lately, I’ve found myself telling folks that as the world gets smaller, it gets more Darwin, and it truly is survival of the fittest.  Find your tribes, follow your passion, be the best in YOUR world, and flow remarkable value.

    When I first read the Dip, an insightful book by Seth, I thought it was Dr. Seuss for adults on knowing when to quit, and when to stick things out.  It was a timely, relevant book for me at the time because I was evaluating various changes in the company and in my life, and I was looking for a lens on how to figure out where to invest my time and energy in a way forward.  The Dip was my answer.  It taught me how to lean into the right Dips.  And it turned out to be a great source of insight for many others I know, and it’s a book that I share frequently with the people I mentor.

    When I read the Bootstrapper’s Bible, I was amazed by the density and depth of insight.  I don’t think I’ve seen anything like it, when it comes to pragmatic insight.  I’m a fan of prescriptive insight, and Seth shows very clearly how it’s a brave new world of solo-preneurs and small is the new big.  The beauty is, he doesn’t just share conclusions.  He lets you follow his trail of thought, and then he doesn’t stop there.  He gives you actionable guidance on what to do, based on his lessons from the school of hard knocks.

    If you haven’t tuned into Seth, you’re missing out on a strategic source of insight.  You can find a lot of wisdom in his words, and here are my top 10 favorite Seth quotes:

    1. “Expectations are the engines of our perceptions.”
    2. “Ideas in secret die. They need light and air or they starve to death.”
    3. “Go ahead, do something impossible. “
    4. “You can’t shrink your way to greatness! “
    5. “Don’t try to please everyone. There are countless people who don’t want one, haven’t heard of one or actively hate it. So what?”
    6. “Instead of wondering when your next vacation is, you ought to set up a life you don’t need to escape from.”
    7. “Why waste a sentence saying nothing? “
    8. “If you could do tomorrow over again, would you?”
    9. “Change is not a threat, it’s an opportunity. Survival is not the goal, transformative success is.”
    10. “Are you a serial idea-starting person? The goal is to be an idea-shipping person.”

    Enjoy!

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