We've had some design discussions where we've come across 4 types of string names. These terms came mostly from discussing debugging symbols, but they extend to naming in general.

Type Example for function Example for filename
Fully qualified names (FQN): An FQN is a well defined string with a formal grammar that provides sufficient identification that it could be used to persistently refer to the object it's naming. For example, a full path name would be an FQN for a given machine.  FQNs should have very well defined semantics and it should be specified what APIs produce and consume them.  If two FQNs are the same, they should represent the same object. mymodule!MyClass::__MyFunction_@352
(includes module, class, and mangled function name)
c:\some_dir\some_subdir\some_file.data
Partially qualified names (PQN): You could also have a Partially Qualified Name (PQN) which still has some context, but does not specify as much as an FQN. PQNs are shorter and can be more convenient than FQNs. MyClass::__MyFunction_@352
 
..\some_subdir\some_file.data
Simple Names: A Simple Name is a single meaningful component of an FQN that still provides some identification. A filename (without path) would be a simple name. The extension would not be a Simple Name because it does not provide enough meaning. Simple Names can be put together using a grammar to form a FQN. __MyFunction_@352
(just the mangled function name)
some_file.data
Pretty Names: Pretty names have no formal meaning but may be of interest to an end user. A Simple Name can usually serve as a Pretty Name. However, Pretty Names can be useful when the FQNs / simple names are either much to verbose or don't map well to a user construct. For example, a module may have a generated name like "XY56_QY23.data". The pretty name may be "Bob's files". Pretty names aren't sufficiently formal as to be consumed by an API. MyFunction
(unmanaged form of simple name)
some_file.data
(same as simple name)

The key themes here are:
1) What can I do with the name? What other APIs  can I pass the name back into?
2) Is there a formal grammar for the name that I can use to compose / decompose it:
3) Name identity: If two names are the same, do they refer to the same object?
4) How much context does the name need in order to have meaning?