Normally, when you are in the case of fast growing log files it means that you have verbose logging on. As in our case verbose logging was off, the issue had to be somewhere else. As we saw that all the service applications were failing on a specific server, we were able to identify that the server somehow lost the trust with the domain after restoring the snapshot. Even though we were able to log into the server (which normally should not work when the trust is gone) the trust was still failing.
The solution in our case was to reboot the server and the domain trust was sorted. Afterwards all issues were sorted and the farm was succesfully expanded :-)