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AIDS. Like many people, I was aware of the disease but had only a basic understanding of the history and impact of the AIDS pandemic. That all changed for me, thanks to my involvement in the AIDS Quilt Project. My name is Madison Allen, and I’m a recent graduate of the University of California, Berkeley. I got involved with the AIDS Quilt through my work on ChronoZoom, an ambitious tool that strives to tell the history of everything—from the moment of the Big Bang until now—on a zoomable timeline.
When Roland Saekow, one of the original developers of ChronoZoom, first sent out a proposal for a history of AIDS timeline (as suggested to him by Donald Brinkman and Rane Johnson at Microsoft Research), I was immediately intrigued. I contacted Roland and, after some initial background research, I quickly realized the importance of this project. Though I originally knew very little about the subject, I was eager to expand my knowledge and become part of such a worthy undertaking.
Soon I was receiving data from Professor Anne Balsamo and graduate students Lauren Fenton and Rosemary Comella of the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California. As I began to input the data into the ChronoZoom AIDS timeline, I started to understand the far-reaching potential of this project.
The greatest challenge was deciding what to include in the timeline—there is such a wealth of information on the history of both AIDS and the quilt itself. We wanted to include much more, but given the project’s time restrictions, we were forced to make difficult decisions. It was also a challenge to represent the historical facts while simultaneously stressing the tragic personal effect that AIDS has had on millions of people. Striking a balance among the personal, medical, historical, and political aspects of AIDS was extremely challenging, as each aspect adds its own unique part to the incredibly complex history of AIDS. Working with such a heart-wrenching topic was also sobering for me.
I hope this timeline will convey the sweeping impact of AIDS. No part of the world, no gender, no community has gone untouched. Countless lives have been devastated by both the disease and the stigma that has long been associated with it. I was shocked to discover that nearly as many lives have been destroyed by discrimination as by the actual illness. I hope that people will take the information in the timeline and use it to work actively in promoting a more accepting environment for those afflicted with AIDS. I also hope that there will be renewed and reinvigorated efforts to find a cure and to distribute medicine to those who desperately need it but cannot afford it. Around the world, so many people suffer from lack of medicine and care. This week’s display of the AIDS Quilt in its entirety in Washington, D.C., will, I hope, send a message that is heard around the world—a clarion call to remedy the current situation.
The ChronoZoom technology brings the timeline to life, allowing people to see the interwoven histories of AIDS and the AIDS Quilt side by side, while also placing the disease in the greater context of human history. It gives people the unique opportunity to learn about AIDS through different media and from different viewpoints. The incredible deep zoom function even allows people to view the quilt in its entirety at specific moments in history, illustrating the growth of the quilt and the continuing onslaught of AIDS. In the future, we hope to include additional unique interviews and stories to further demonstrate the impact of AIDS on a more personal level.
This project has been an incredible learning experience for me. Prior to working on the timeline, my understanding of AIDS and its worldwide impact was incomplete, to say the least. Though my knowledge is far from complete now, I have begun to grasp the complex and tragic effect that AIDS has had on millions. More than just a disease, AIDS is a lifelong battle for both health and acceptance. I feel so honored to have participated in this project and hope it will increase awareness about AIDS and, by so doing, foster greater acceptance and promote efforts toward finding a cure. The timeline, like the quilt, will serve as a reminder of and tribute to all those who have fallen victim to the devastation of AIDS and will provide hope for an AIDS-free future. —Madison Allen, guest blogger
As I was preparing to travel to Washington, D.C., for the 2012 exhibition of the AIDS Quilt and the International AIDS Conference, it occurred to me that this journey began a little less than a year ago, in nearly the same spot. I first learned about the AIDS Quilt project from Brett Bobley, CIO of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The NEH offices are just a short walk from the National Mall, where I am spending three days with a small group of volunteers unpacking, unfolding, arranging, displaying, refolding, and repacking the more than 6,000 blocks that comprise the AIDS Quilt. If it weren’t for Brett, I might never have made this journey, learned this story, and played a small part in raising awareness of a global pandemic.
Zoomable digital likeness of the AIDS Memorial Quilt, running in Bing Maps
I went to visit Brett last year to discuss the recently launched Digging into Data Challenge. Digging into Data is a program of grants to explore ways that technology can be used to illuminate the vast digital repositories that universities, libraries, and museums have established over the last few decades. Over lunch, I described to Brett the many technologies that Microsoft Research has developed to help people tell stories with data, including ChronoZoom, Rich Interactive Narratives, Large Art Display on the Surface, Silverlight PivotViewer, Layerscape, and Bing Maps. Brett, in turn, described many terrific NEH projects, but one in particular stuck in my head: a startup grant awarded to create an Interactive Tabletop Device for Humanities Exhibitions.
For the next part of the story, we need to travel more than 2,500 miles to Los Angeles and the University of Southern California Annenberg Innovation Labs, where I met with researcher Anne Balsamo. It was she who won the grant for the tabletop, and it was her idea to partner with the NAMES Project Foundation to create digital interactive exhibits to support the AIDS Quilt exhibitions of 2012.
Anne spoke of the challenges she faced. There are more than 55 GB of quilt images taken over a span of 25 years. Each image is a block of eight quilt panels sewn together. That amounts to more than 49,000 individual quilt panels, each with associated metadata. In order to make her exhibit come to life, Anne needed to stitch these images together as well as cut them up—in the cloud. Anne also needed a way to smoothly zoom and explore the immense tapestry of the virtually stitched quilt. The entire quilt measures approximately 1.3 million square feet—around 24 acres—and browsing across it is not a simple matter. Finally, Anne wondered if we could do more than create a single static quilt. Could we dynamically re-stitch the quilt into different configurations based on the metadata?
As we talked, I realized that Microsoft Research had all of the technology pieces Anne needed—five of them, to be precise. To cut and stitch the virtual quilt, we could use Windows Azure to create cloud data stores and run stitch/unstitch scripts across multiple cores. To zoom and explore the quilt, we could use a combination of Silverlight Deep Zoom paired with both Large Art Display on Surface, for a high-fidelity experience, and Bing Maps, for a cross-platform experience. Finally, to dynamically reconfigure the quilt, we could use PivotViewer.
But this is easier said than done. Anne had a very small budget and hiring a vendor to do just one of these tasks would probably consume all of it. How could we fund such a massive endeavor with only a few short months until the exhibition? The answer: we wouldn’t.
Here at Microsoft, we have an initiative called the Garage, which brings together employees from all over the world who are interested in collaborating on side projects. I reached out to the Garage and asked if anyone would like to volunteer to help with the quilt project. Within hours, I had close to a dozen volunteers, including three developers who jumped right in and began the work of stitching the quilt and creating prototypes. Within a week, they had a proof of concept up and running in Bing Maps, enabling you to be one of the first people in the world to view the quilt in its entirety.
Still we needed more help. We needed teams to create the interactive exhibitions that would illuminate the stories of those whose lives have been lost to AIDS. We called upon the University of Iowa and Brown University to help create these exhibits. We provided them with four Samsung SUR40 with Microsoft PixelSense devices—large, interactive-touch tabletops that allow people to touch the virtual quilt, explore its story, and share its contents. These groups created the AIDS Quilt Touch application and the NAMES table, an interactive display that allows visitors to view the names memorialized in the quilt and physically explore the images as a single, stitched panorama.
In late June, the AIDS Quilt was packed into trucks and shipped from the NAMES Project Foundation headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, to Washington, D.C. The quilt was displayed at the Smithsonian Folklife Festival, June 27 to July 1 and again July 4 to July 8, where an estimated 1.5 million people viewed it. The quilt is again on display on the National Mall July 21 to 25, covering the entire mall once a day over three consecutive days. On the fourth day, we will display a single panel—a special panel called “the last one,” which will not be sewn into the quilt until a cure is found. On that day, we will ask the question: “When will we be able to say that the quilt is complete—that no one will ever die from this disease again?” I hope to see that day, and thanks to a distributed group of developers and researchers across the United States, we are able to bring the quilt to your desktop so that you can ponder that question and perhaps help find the answer.
—Donald Brinkman, Program Manager, Microsoft Research Connections
The Microsoft Faculty Summit celebrates the ongoing collaboration of Microsoft Research and the academic community, providing a forum for leading faculty members and Microsoft personnel to collectively discuss the future of computing and its applications in solving real-world problems. This productive partnership extends all the way back to the founding of Microsoft Research, so at this year’s summit, we are pleased to release Science@Microsoft, an e-book that commemorates our many years of fruitful teamwork
Now, not to complain, but imagine the task that fell to me and my fellow editors—David Heckerman, Stephen Emmott, and especially Yan Xu and Kenji Takeda—reviewing years and years of research to select a handful of stories that encapsulate the irrepressible innovation, the remarkable collegiality, and the ground-breaking impact that have characterized the collaboration between Microsoft Research and leading academic researchers. It was almost as daunting as the original research. Well, not really, but it was challenging. Which stories would make the cut? What were the selection criteria? As David Heckerman observed, “Our challenge was to select a small number of stories that each represented a unique aspect of the new paradigm—the eigenstories, if you will.”
In the end, we focused on the last 10 years, choosing stories that demonstrate the breadth of our collaborative research and the potential of computer science to address some of the world’s most vexing problems. We believe these stories demonstrate the amazing power of technology to impact areas far afield from traditional computer science.
Within these pages, you will read about investigations into the genetic basis of human disease, the study of the heavens, and the design of three-dimensional objects. You’ll find accounts of basic research with practical outcomes: from protecting endangered wildlife to safeguarding consumers. You’ll see how Microsoft Researchers, working in concert with academic and government investigators, have tackled some of the most pressing issues of the twenty-first century, from climate change to the AIDS epidemic to world hunger. You’ll also discover equally valuable, if less headline-worthy, contributions to the publication of chemical information and the reuse of data from clinical studies. Still, choosing was difficult. In the words of Stephen Emmott, “It was virtually impossible to select, given the first-rate science characterizing all of the projects.” Above all, this collection demonstrates Microsoft Research’s commitment to applying computer science to basic research and our rich history of working with external researchers. These stories commemorate a great record of using computing technologies in the service of humankind.
Science@Microsoft is published under a Creative Commons license, and is available as a PDF at microsoft.com/scienceatmicrosoft. It is also offered as an e-book through the Amazon and Barnes & Noble online stores. So fire up your laptops or e-readers!
—Tony Hey, Vice President, Microsoft Research Connections