Inside Architecture

Notes on Enterprise Architecture, Business Alignment, Interesting Trends, and anything else that interests me this week...

September, 2012

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  • Inside Architecture

    Many (flawed) Definitions of Business Architecture

    • 6 Comments

    Not long ago, I attempted to create a refined definition of “business architecture.”  I felt compelled to do so because the definition that I found in the Business Architecture Guild’s BizBOK (Guide to the Business Architecture Body of Knowledge) defined the word “business architecture” in terms of an artifact (a thing).  In my eyes, that "thing" already had a name, and creating a new name for an old thing, while forgetting the practice that creates part of it, seemed like a mistake.

    Literally, within minutes of posting a question on LinkedIn about my definition, I found that there had already been a raging debate about the definition of the term “Business Architecture.”  (egg on my face).  So I went through that other discussion and picked up the various definitions I found there.  I also scanned the web looking for additional definitions, and found a few. 

    The list of definitions that I found is copied here.  Note that, at the bottom of this post, I will make some observations about these entries and what it says about the maturity of our definitions.  If you’d like to skip the list of definitions, I encourage you to scroll down and look for the analysis.  The surprising conclusion (I’ll spoil the surprise) is that every one of them is flawed, including mine.  Read on.

    List of definitions of business architecture

    Below is a list of various definitions of business architecture, drawn from a LinkedIn Discussion in the Business Architecture Community, started by Terry Roach.  This list was extracted from LinkedIn on September 9th, 2012.  In addition to the discussion on LinkedIn, I searched the Internet (using Bing, of course) to find additional definitions.  Note that if a definition is cited in multiple locations, it appears in the table below only once, citing the original source.

    For each definition, I captured its source and two attributes of the definition: the scope and the perspective.

    Scope: The definitions tend to vary about whether they describe one or more of these three aspects of business architecture:

    • Contents – Treats Business Architecture as a noun and describes the contents of it.
    • Purpose – Describes the reason for either performing or creating a business architecture.
    • Activities – Describes some of the activities that intersect the performance of, or management of, business architecture.

    Perspective: Each definition takes one of these two perspectives: Either Business Architecture is a thing or a process.   

    Who

    Scope

    Perspective

    Text

    Terry Roach

    Contents

    Thing

    "A business architecture articulates organisational objectives and associated strategies in a conceptual model of the domain, the behaviour and the governance of business operations. "

    Bruce McNaughton

    Contents

    Thing

    "The business strategy, governance, organization, and key business process information, as well as the interaction among these concepts." (derived from TOGAF)

    Sunil Muduli

    Contents, Activities

    Process

    Business Architecture is about Modeling/Capturing Business Motivation, Capability, Process (Level 0 & 1) and People(Role/Responsibility)

    Rubina Polovina

    Contents, Purpose

    Thing

    Business Architecture—A model of real-world that contains discourse relevant for an IT-intensive endeavor (or, simply, IT endeavor)

    OMG Business Architecture Group

    Contents, Purpose

    Thing

    a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands. (Bizbok 2.1)

    Tim Blaxall

    Purpose, Activities

    Process

    Business Architecture helps to implement our business strategy by designing the developments needed in the way our business operates

    The Open Group Architecture Framework [TOGAF]

    Contents

    Thing

    Overview: The Business Architecture defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes.

    Definition: A description of the structure and interaction between the business strategy, organization, functions, business processes, and information needs. (TOGAF 9.1, Section 3.22)

    Taurai Christopher Ushewokunze

    Activities

    Process

    Business Architecture is the process of planning, designing and implementing macro level to micro level business structures at a minimum it defines the relationships between finance, marketing, operations and technology.

    Nick Ananin

    Activities

    Process

    Business Architecture is the process and outcomes of planning, designing and building a system that delivers tradable products (goods, services etc) that are of value to customers.

    /Also/

    Definition of Business Architecture = "An architecture applied to a business system".

    Michael Poulin

    Contents

    Thing

    Enterprise Business Architecture is architecture that comprises business functionality and business informational models, positions itself across business administrative and organisational enterprise structures, and that transforms goals and objectives defined in a business enterprise model and refined in the Strategic Business Plans into the functional and informational definition for a corporate business

    Joanne Dong

    Contents, Purpose

    Thing

    Business Architecture is a holistic set of descriptive representations of the different components of the business and their relationships. The purpose of a business architecture is to ensure proper alignments and integration among the components.

    Ralph Whittle

    Contents

    Thing

    Informal: the Business Architecture is a blueprint of the enterprise built using architectural disciplines to improve performance.

    Formal: The Business Architecture defines the enterprise value streams and their relationships to all external entities, other enterprise value streams, and the events that trigger instantiation. It is a definition of what the enterprise must produce to satisfy its customers, compete in a market, deal with its suppliers, sustain operations, and care for its employees. (Source)

    Tim Manning

    Activities, Purpose

    Process

    Business Architecture is a discipline and set of methods for the holistic design of organisations. The architecture of a business is “the arrangement of the functions and features that achieve a given set of business objectives” (adapted from King, 2010).

    Sam Holcman

    Purpose, Activities

    Process

    Business Architecture is explicitly representing an organization’s desired state and as-is state, through a set of independent, non-redundant artifacts, defining how these artifacts relate with each other, and developing a set of prioritized, aligned capabilities needed to meet the organization’s goals, communicating this understanding to stakeholders, and advancing the organization from its as-is state to its desired state. (BACOE, EACOE)

    Nick Malik

    Activities, Purpose

    Process

    Formal: Business Architecture is
    (1.) 1. A specialization of the Enterprise Architecture business function that collects and manages functional, structural, and motivation-related information using a rigorous scientific and engineered approach for the purposes of business design, functional improvement, motivational alignment and decision support.
    (2.) One of the four traditional domains of Enterprise Architecture.
    Informal: Business Architecture -- A specialization of the Enterprise Architecture business function that uses science and engineering to design and implement business functional and process improvements and strategically-aligned change initiatives.

    Derek Miers (Forrester)

    Activities, Purpose

    Process

    An organized and repeatable approach to describe and analyze an organization’s business and operating models to support a wide variety of organizational change purposes; from cost reduction and restructuring, to process change and transformation.

    Art Caston (as cited by Dave Woods)

    Activities, Purpose

    Process

    Business Architecture supports business opportunity assessments, strategy development, and business transformation program planning by creating various business reference models, populating these reference models with current business information, and creating integrated target architecture models to show future market positioning, product and service capabilities, enterprise structure and responsibilities, and proposed business partner relationships. These target models are used by related business planning functions to structure, organize, and govern related transformation programs.

    IASA (as cited by Kevin in comments below)

     Contents

     Thing

    A business architecture is a part of an enterprise architecture related to architectural organization of business, and the documents and diagrams that describe that architectural organization.

    Ben Gray

    Contents, Purpose

    Thing

    A business architecture [noun] helps a client (the business owner/director) to better understand the landscape (business environment, context, or market); understand their choices and constraints; and articulate their vision (requirements) such that designers (of processes, roles, systems, apps, etc) can create a coherent set of artefacts that can be used to plan and build/buy and test against

     

    Analysis of the definitions of business architecture

    The first thing to notice is that there are PLENTY of definitions of business architecture.  I have listed seventeen (20) definitions above from seventeen (17) people.  If I find more definitions, I may add them to the list, but I probably won’t update the numbers in the analysis below (too much hassle).   It is interesting to note that very few of the respondents referred to a pre-existing definition from a reliable source (like TOGAF, OMG, or Forrester). 

    I did a little categorizing as I went, and you can see that effort in the table above.  The reason for doing the categorizing is to understand what the community considered important to include in a definition.  Think about that for a minute.  A definition captures the important distinctions of a concept, sufficient to clearly differentiate that concept from other, potentially similar, ones.  Definitions “should” be minimal, but they don’t have to be.  The folks who contributed were not trying to make a perfect definition.  They were trying to provide all the information that they found important.  So let’s look at what the contributors found important.  Of the 20 definitions provided, the numbers were VERY evenly split…

    Definitions Containing Activities Purpose Contents
      10 10 11

    As for the other attribute, it highly correlated to the numbers above.  Everyone who described business architecture in terms of “activities” was describing a process.  All other definitions described a thing.  The number of definitions was EVENLY SPLIT between the two.

    Definitions describing a Process a Thing
      10 10

    (Note: Sunil described the process of capturing contents without describing where those contents would go.  Therefore, his definition described activities and contents, but still described a process.  Hence, the number of definitions describing contents does not equal the number that describe business architecture as a “thing”)

    What can we draw from this: of the respondents to that thread on LinkedIn, and from various sources around the Internet, there is NO CONSENSUS on whether business architecture is a process or a thing. 

    Since a definition describes how a word is used, and is NOT a reflection on what we want it to mean, and given that 20 different definitions submitted describe the term in two different ways… I would consider it likely that the term is used in both ways (both as a process and as a thing). 

    Next Steps

    Assuming that my analysis is correct, EVERY SINGLE DEFINITION ABOVE IS WRONG (including mine).  All of them define business architecture in terms of either a process or a thing.  Not one define the term to have two meanings.  Yet the term ‘business architecture’ clearly has two meanings!

    My suggestion to the reliable sources for the definition of business architecture: update your definition to include both sides of this coin.  I will do the same.  Note that I will not update the numbers in the analysis to reflect that change. 

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