Debug puzzler 0x00000002 “Attack of the crazy stack”

Debug puzzler 0x00000002 “Attack of the crazy stack”

  • Comments 17

Hi NTDebuggers, I have another puzzler for you.  We started crash2.exe under windbg and it crashed.  Go figure!  Sometimes we have a very limited amount of data available to figure out what went wrong.  That being said, this week’s puzzler only gives you a few clues.    Given this week’s debugger output, what do you suspect the problem is?  What would you do to further isolate the issue or prove your theory?

 

If there is more data you need to solve it, post a comment / request and I will provide the data for you.  We will post all comments during the week and provide our answer on Friday.  We look forward to your comments.

 

CommandLine: crash2.exe

Symbol search path is: srv*C:\symbols*\\symbols\symbols

Executable search path is:

ModLoad: 00400000 00438000   crash2.exe

ModLoad: 779b0000 77b00000   ntdll.dll

ModLoad: 76180000 76290000   C:\Windows\syswow64\kernel32.dll

(15d0.1688): Break instruction exception - code 80000003 (first chance)

eax=00000000 ebx=00000000 ecx=cd7b0000 edx=00000000 esi=fffffffe edi=77a90094

eip=779c0004 esp=0017faf8 ebp=0017fb28 iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000246

ntdll!DbgBreakPoint:

779c0004 cc              int     3

 

0:000> g

 

(15d0.1688): Access violation - code c0000005 (first chance)

First chance exceptions are reported before any exception handling.

This exception may be expected and handled.

eax=0017feec ebx=7619140f ecx=0042ecc8 edx=00000000 esi=00000002 edi=00001770

eip=65732074 esp=0017ff00 ebp=6f207473 iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz ac pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00010216

65732074 ??              ???

0:000> k 123

 

ChildEBP RetAddr 

WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.

0017fefc 66692065 0x65732074

0017ff3c 0041b9a3 0x66692065

*** WARNING: Unable to verify checksum for crash2.exe

0017ffa0 762019f1 crash2!_onexit+0x35

0017ffac 77a2d109 kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xe

0017ffec 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x23

 

0:000> lm

start    end        module name

00400000 00438000   crash2   C (private pdb symbols)  D:\CPRRAMP\source\crash2\debug\crash2.pdb

76180000 76290000   kernel32   (private pdb symbols)  C:\symbols\wkernel32.pdb\20F7BB5ED22344A2910B27CA7252AE792\wkernel32.pdb

779b0000 77b00000   ntdll      (private pdb symbols)  C:\symbols\wntdll.pdb\7099E4B6A6984FD08CBC90A4EDD40FD12\wntdll.pdb

 

0:000> db 66692065

66692065  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

66692075  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

66692085  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

66692095  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920a5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920b5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920c5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920d5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

0:000> db 0x65732074

65732074  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

65732084  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

65732094  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

657320a4  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

657320b4  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

657320c4  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

657320d4  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

657320e4  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

0:000> db 0041b9a3

0041b9a3  c3 e8 42 57 ff ff c3 cc-cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc  ..BW............

0041b9b3  cc cc cc cc cc cc ff 74-24 04 e8 42 5c ff ff f7  .......t$..B\...

0041b9c3  d8 1b c0 f7 d8 59 48 c3-cc cc cc cc 8b 44 24 04  .....YH......D$.

0041b9d3  a3 78 3c 43 00 a3 7c 3c-43 00 a3 80 3c 43 00 a3  .x<C..|<C...<C..

0041b9e3  84 3c 43 00 c3 cc cc cc-cc cc cc 6a 10 68 58 16  .<C........j.hX.

0041b9f3  43 00 e8 cc 5d ff ff 33-ff 57 e8 0f 59 ff ff 59  C...]..3.W..Y..Y

0041ba03  89 7d fc 39 7d 08 75 1c-be 78 3c 43 00 ff 35 78  .}.9}.u..x<C..5x

0041ba13  3c 43 00 e8 19 5e ff ff-89 45 e4 c7 45 e0 02 00  <C...^...E..E...

0:000> db 0x66692065

66692065  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

66692075  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

66692085  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

66692095  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920a5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920b5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920c5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

666920d5  ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??  ????????????????

 

0:000> dd esp

 

0017ff00  66692065 72756f20 61747320 69206b63

0017ff10  616c2073 72656772 6f6e6520 54686775

0017ff20  20736968 6d207369 2065726f 61746164

0017ff30  726f6620 00737520 6f76e0ae fffffffe

0017ff40  0041b9a3 0041b9c2 00411181 004146d9

0017ff50  0017ffa0 00412ac4 00000001 002620a0

0017ff60  002620d8 6f220936 00000000 00000000

0017ff70  7efde000 0017ff9c 00000000 00000006

 

0:000> dds esp

 

0017ff00  66692065

0017ff04  72756f20

0017ff08  61747320

0017ff0c  69206b63

0017ff10  616c2073

0017ff14  72656772

0017ff18  6f6e6520

0017ff1c  54686775

0017ff20  20736968

0017ff24  6d207369

0017ff28  2065726f

0017ff2c  61746164

0017ff30  726f6620

0017ff34  00737520

0017ff38  6f76e0ae

0017ff3c  fffffffe

0017ff40  0041b9a3 crash2!_onexit+0x35

0017ff44  0041b9c2 crash2!atexit+0x9

0017ff48  00411181 crash2!ILT+380(__RTC_Terminate)

0017ff4c  004146d9 crash2!_cinit+0x49

0017ff50  0017ffa0

0017ff54  00412ac4 crash2!__tmainCRTStartup+0x15e

0017ff58  00000001

0017ff5c  002620a0

0017ff60  002620d8

0017ff64  6f220936

0017ff68  00000000

0017ff6c  00000000

0017ff70  7efde000

0017ff74  0017ff9c

0017ff78  00000000

0017ff7c  00000006

 

 

Good luck and happy debugging!

 

Jeff-


[Update: more debugger output, per reader request. Posted 4/17/2008]

Note this cashes without windbg also.

 

CommandLine: crash2.exe

Symbol search path is: SRV*c:\websymbols*http://msdl.microsoft.com/download/symbols

Executable search path is:

ModLoad: 00400000 00438000   crash2.exe

ModLoad: 777b0000 77900000   ntdll.dll

ModLoad: 75a10000 75b20000   C:\Windows\syswow64\kernel32.dll

(1324.16d0): Break instruction exception - code 80000003 (first chance)

eax=00000000 ebx=00000000 ecx=73fe0000 edx=00000000 esi=fffffffe edi=77890094

eip=777c0004 esp=0017faf8 ebp=0017fb28 iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000246

ntdll!DbgBreakPoint:

777c0004 cc              int     3

0:000> g

(1324.16d0): Access violation - code c0000005 (first chance)

First chance exceptions are reported before any exception handling.

This exception may be expected and handled.

eax=0017feec ebx=75a2140f ecx=0042ecc8 edx=00000000 esi=00000002 edi=00001770

eip=65732074 esp=0017ff00 ebp=6f207473 iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz ac pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00010216

65732074 ??              ???

0:000> db esp

0017ff00  65 20 69 66 20 6f 75 72-20 73 74 61 63 6b 20 69  e if our stack i

0017ff10  73 20 6c 61 72 67 65 72-20 65 6e 6f 75 67 68 54  s larger enoughT

0017ff20  68 69 73 20 69 73 20 6d-6f 72 65 20 64 61 74 61  his is more data

0017ff30  20 66 6f 72 20 75 73 00-9b 7d 6b d3 fe ff ff ff   for us..}k.....

0017ff40  a3 b9 41 00 c2 b9 41 00-81 11 41 00 d9 46 41 00  ..A...A...A..FA.

0017ff50  a0 ff 17 00 c4 2a 41 00-01 00 00 00 98 21 03 00  .....*A......!..

0017ff60  d0 21 03 00 03 94 3f d3-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  .!....?.........

0017ff70  00 e0 fd 7e 9c ff 17 00-00 00 00 00 06 00 00 00  ...~............

0:000> ln 0042ecc8

(0042ecac)   crash2!`string'+0x1c   |  (0042eccc)   crash2!`string'

0:000> .formats 0017ff044

Evaluate expression:

  Hex:     017ff044

  Decimal: 25161796

  Octal:   00137770104

  Binary:  00000001 01111111 11110000 01000100

  Chars:   ..D

  Time:    Mon Oct 19 01:23:16 1970

  Float:   low 4.70085e-038 high 0

  Double:  1.24316e-316

0:000> dd 0017ff044

017ff044  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff054  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff064  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff074  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff084  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff094  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff0a4  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

017ff0b4  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????

0:000> dds crash2!__onexitbegin

00434354  59c96d56

00434358  00000001

0043435c  00000000

00434360  00000000

00434364  00000000

00434368  00000000

0043436c  00000000

00434370  00033760

00434374  00000000

00434378  00000000

0043437c  00000000

00434380  00000000

00434384  00000000

00434388  00000000

0043438c  00000000

00434390  00000000

00434394  00000000

00434398  00000000

0043439c  00000000

004343a0  00000000

004343a4  00000000

004343a8  00000000

004343ac  00000000

004343b0  00000000

004343b4  00000000

004343b8  00000000

004343bc  00000000

004343c0  00000000

004343c4  00000000

004343c8  00000000

004343cc  00000000

004343d0  00000000

0:000> dds crash2!__onexitend

00434350  59c94d56

00434354  59c96d56

00434358  00000001

0043435c  00000000

00434360  00000000

00434364  00000000

00434368  00000000

0043436c  00000000

00434370  00033760

00434374  00000000

00434378  00000000

0043437c  00000000

00434380  00000000

00434384  00000000

00434388  00000000

0043438c  00000000

00434390  00000000

00434394  00000000

00434398  00000000

0043439c  00000000

004343a0  00000000

004343a4  00000000

004343a8  00000000

004343ac  00000000

004343b0  00000000

004343b4  00000000

004343b8  00000000

004343bc  00000000

004343c0  00000000

004343c4  00000000

004343c8  00000000

004343cc  00000000

 


[Update: our answer. Posted 4/18/2008]

This week we had a lot of people that realized this was a buffer overrun.   You guys are so good I’m going to make next week’s puzzler a little harder!

Good work all!   They are not all listed but some of the responses I liked the best were:

 

moltov

Matthieu

Doug

Tal Rosen

 

This week’s official response

 

 

Let’s start off with wmain.  You can see here that we push a pointer to a string onto the stack and call fun1 004117a3

 

0:000> uf crash2!wmain

crash2!wmain [d:\cprramp\source\crash2\crash2\crash2.cpp @ 11]:

   11 00412520 55              push    ebp

   11 00412521 8bec            mov     ebp,esp

   11 00412523 83ec40          sub     esp,40h

   11 00412526 53              push    ebx

   11 00412527 56              push    esi

   11 00412528 57              push    edi

   12 00412529 686cec4200      push    offset crash2!`string' (0042ec6c) << Pushing param onto the stack

   12 0041252e e870f2ffff      call    crash2!ILT+1950(?fun1YAXPADZ) (004117a3)  << Making call to fun1

   12 00412533 83c404          add     esp,4

   13 00412536 33c0            xor     eax,eax

   14 00412538 5f              pop     edi

   14 00412539 5e              pop     esi

   14 0041253a 5b              pop     ebx

   14 0041253b 8be5            mov     esp,ebp

   14 0041253d 5d              pop     ebp

   14 0041253e c3              ret

 

Lets dump out the value we are passing.

 

0:000> da 0042ec6c

0042ec6c  "This is a test ot see if our sta"

0042ec8c  "ck is larger enough"

 

0:000> uf 004117a3

crash2!fun1 [d:\cprramp\source\crash2\crash2\crash2.cpp @ 17]:

   17 00412550 55              push    ebp

   17 00412551 8bec            mov     ebp,esp

   17 00412553 83ec4c          sub     esp,4Ch

   17 00412556 53              push    ebx

   17 00412557 56              push    esi

   17 00412558 57              push    edi

   19 00412559 8b4508          mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+8]  << Here we are moving EBP+8 into eax. This is basically just loading the address of parameter one into eax

   19 0041255c 50              push    eax  << We push it onto the stack to make our call to  strcpy

   19 0041255d 8d4df4          lea     ecx,[ebp-0Ch]  << Now we are loading the address of a local on the stack. 

Note the local is ebp-c   That means that we can only write 0xC bytes to

this location before we end up overwriting things on the stack like our base pointer and return address.

   19 00412560 51              push    ecx  << Now we push our local variable address onto the stack for our call to strcpy

   19 00412566 83c408          add     esp,8

   20 00412569 8d45f4          lea     eax,[ebp-0Ch]

   20 0041256c 50              push    eax

 

   19 00412561 e8c3eeffff      call    crash2!ILT+1060(_strcpy) (00411429)  << This is where things go WRONG, within the call to strcpy we have overwritten our return address with string data.

 

Let’s look at the before and after.

 

0:000> bp 00412560

0:000> g

Breakpoint 2 hit

eax=0042ec6c ebx=75a2140f ecx=0017feec edx=00000000 esi=00000002 edi=00001770

eip=00412560 esp=0017fe9c ebp=0017fef8 iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz ac pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000216

crash2!fun1+0x10:

00412560 51              push    ecx

0:000> k 

ChildEBP RetAddr 

0017fef8 00412533 crash2!fun1+0x10 [d:\cprramp\source\crash2\crash2\crash2.cpp @ 19] << The return address is ok here!

0017ff50 00412ac4 crash2!wmain+0x13 [d:\cprramp\source\crash2\crash2\crash2.cpp @ 12]

0017ffa0 75a919f1 crash2!__tmainCRTStartup+0x15e [f:\sp\vctools\crt_bld\self_x86\crt\src\crt0.c @ 327]

0017ffac 7782d109 kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xe

0017ffec 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x23

 

0:000> p  << Lets step over the call to strcpy and look again.

eax=0017feec ebx=75a2140f ecx=0042eca0 edx=00686775 esi=00000002 edi=00001770

eip=00412569 esp=0017fea0 ebp=0017fef8 iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz ac pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000216

crash2!fun1+0x19:

00412569 8d45f4          lea     eax,[ebp-0Ch]

 

0:000> k

ChildEBP RetAddr 

0017fef8 65732074 crash2!fun1+0x19 [d:\cprramp\source\crash2\crash2\crash2.cpp @ 20]

WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.

0017ff3c 0041b9a3 0x65732074  << This is not going to be pretty when we ret out of fun1.  We will basically return to nowhere.

0017ffa0 75a919f1 crash2!_onexit+0x35 [f:\sp\vctools\crt_bld\self_x86\crt\src\onexit.c @ 98]

0017ffac 7782d109 kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xe

0017ffec 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x23

 

0:000> da 0017fef8   if we do a da on the location of the stack frame we can see what is at that location.

0017fef8  "st ot see if our stack is larger"  << It’s our string!

0017ff18  " enough"

 

Finally we have the C code.

 

#include <windows.h>

 

void fun1(char * szData);

void fun2(char * szData);

 

int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])

{

                fun1("This is a test ot see if our stack is larger enough");

                return 0;

}

 

void fun1(char * szdata)

{

                char szData1[10];

                strcpy(szData1,szdata);

                fun2(szData1);

}

void fun2(char *szData)

{

                printf("Hello from fun2");

                strcat(szData,"This is more data for us");

}

 

 

Have a great weekend, Good luck, and happy debugging!

 

Jeff-





Leave a Comment
  • Please add 1 and 2 and type the answer here:
  • Post
  • Great puzzle!

    I'll take a guess: somebody called atexit() and passed in a function pointer that's implemented in a DLL.  But that DLL has been unloaded when _onexit() gets called.

  • Looks like crash2.exe is a 32-bit app running on x64 Vista+.  EBP and EIP appear trashed; I'd suspect some kind of buffer overrun.

    "e if our stack is larger enough This is more data for us"

    I guess one thing I'd do is check the output of db esp...

  • Nice stack overflow.  The ascii char are a dead give away.

    "if our stack is larger enough This is more data for us"

    I somewhat don't understand the "problem".  Is it that it crashes or is it that it crashes under Windbg?

  • This looks like the stack corruption to me.

    The ebp has quite different value as esp register(their difference should be less than 1M):

    esp=0017ff00 ebp=6f207473

    The further "db" command confirms that 6f207473 points to invalid address.(Free VA region)

    Since the ebp register is saved on the stack and later popped up from their I assume the garbage value "6f207473" is caused by corruption of "ret value" or "saved ebp value" on the stack.

    Esp value looks ok, since the "dps esp" output makes sense.

    The Access Violation is caused by "eip=65732074" which also points to the invalid VA region. This is expected because "ebp" value is corrupted, which provides incorrect offset return value for "eip".

    Finally, to verify it, we can turn-on the /GS compiler option in the VS2003/2005/2008.

    Jeffrey Tan

  • dds output looks very 'ASCII'

    let start with

    0:020> da esp

    xxxxxxxxxx  "fi eruo ats i kal sregro@."

    Well, it a buffer overflow corrupting our stack.

    since ecx=0042ecc8 (near out module code)

    maybe this will give us a hint of the last call?  

    how about: ln 0042ecc8

    ?????????

  • eip=65732074 esp=0017ff00 ebp=6f207473

    0017fefc 66692065 0x65732074

    It means EIP value is from [ESP]

    EBP is also erased. Then the overflow is probably caused by something like

    pop ebp

    retn XXXX

    Then, retn opcode gives a bad return address to EIP. I guess the problem is to locate which function causes the buffer overflow right

    ChildEBP RetAddr

    WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.

    0017fefc 66692065 0x65732074

    0017ff3c 0041b9a3 0x66692065

    Is it possible to know the value at offset 0017ff044?

    (Hypothesis-1)

    There is a common dword between to string it looks like buffer from 0017FEFC is copied to 0017FF40.

    It can be verified if dword at 0x17FF44 is equal to 0x65732074.

    Debug dump also give the following information.

    0017ff3c  fffffffe

    0017ff40  0041b9a3 crash2!_onexit+0x35

    0017ff44  0041b9c2 crash2!atexit+0x9

    Then, pointer to atexit()+0x9 offset may have been modified. It means when the program tried to return to atexit()+0x9 it returns to 0x65732074.

    atexit offset = 0041b9c2-0x9

    A call usualy is coded on 5 bytes, like 0xE8 then let's disassemble the code at 0x0041B9C2 - 0x5 (0x41B9BD)

    In the dump we can see:

    0041B9BD : e8 42 5c ff ff

    Destination is : 0x41B9C2 + 0xFFFF5C42 = 0x0411604

    If my logical is right the vulnerable function to the overflow is located at 0x0411604, but we don't see information or this address in the dump.

    This answer depends if hypothesis-1 is right or not.

  • I would concur that it's a stack overrun, probably in either a global/static class destructor, or an explicitly registered atexit handler.

  • dds crash2!__onexitbegin

    dds crash2!__onexitend

    Ta

  • My guess is that you've got a global function like described on the VC Blog, and that global is cause a stack overrun.

    Basically, during _cinit() it goes through these, one by one:

    ...

     atexit(_RTC_Terminate);

     _initterm( __xc_a, __xc_z );

    ...

    It happens after the atexit() call. That's why we see it in the dds esp output.

    Just a guess... :)

  • Oh, the blog entry is http://blogs.msdn.com/vcblog/archive/2006/10/20/crt-initialization.aspx

  • @RichardRudek: I think you're on to something. In fact, what's happening is that the SEH epilog of msvcrt!_onexit (statically linked in this case) is failing due to stack corruption. I'm not experienced enough to know why or how this happens. :-)

  • Unfortunately, it looks like the nice idea of providing more data is too hard...

  • Hi JM,

    Is there any clue that this is caused by the SEH overwrite instead of stack overflow for global variable? I am glad to hear the reason :-).

    Anyway, we can turn-on /SafeSEH to give it a shoot.

  • I forgot they're encoded.  The quickest way to find the corruption would be to use ba on an address within the SEH frame from _onexit+0xc.

    Jeffrey: the code at 0041b9a3 matches the return from __SEH_epilog4 in _onexit (in the latest non-debug msvcrt).  So it's while clearing up the SEH that exposes the problem, but that doesn't mean it *is* the problem.

  • Ahh.  Optimisation bites again.  None of the CRTs I can find optimises crash2!_onexit...

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