In unix, file descriptors are inherited by child processes by default. This wasn't so much an active decision as it was a consequence of the fork/exec model. To exclude a file descriptor from being inherited by children, you set the FD_CLO­EXEC flag on the file descriptor.

Win32 sort of works like that, but backwards, and maybe a little upside-down. And in high heels.

In Win32, handles default to not inherited. Ways to make a handle inherited during Create­Process have grown during the evolution of Win32.

As far as I can tell, back in the old days, inheritability of handles was established at handle creation time. For most handle creation functions, you do this by passing a SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES structure with bInherit­Handle set to TRUE. Functions which created handles from existing objects don't have a SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES parameter, so they instead have an explicit bInherit­Handle parameter. (For examples, see Open­Event and Duplicate­Handle.)

But just marking a handle as inheritable isn't good enough to get it inherited. You also have to pass TRUE as the bInherit­Handles parameter to Create­Process. A handle will be inherited only if if the bInherit­Handles parameter is TRUE and the handle is marked as inheritable. Miss either of those steps, and you don't get your inheritance. (To make sure you get your inheritance IRL, be nice to your grandmother.)

In Windows 2000, Win32 gained the ability to alter the inheritability of a handle after it is created. The Set­Handle­Information function lets you turn the HANDLE_FLAG_INHERIT flag on and off on a handle.

But all this inheritability fiddling still had a fatal flaw: What if two threads within the same process both call Create­Process but disagree on which handles they want to be inherited? For example, suppose you have a function Create­Process­With­Shared­Memory whose job it is to launch a process, passing it a custom-made shared memory block. Suppose two threads run this function simultaneously.

A   B
CreateFileMapping(inheritable=TRUE) CreateFileMapping(inheritable=TRUE)
returns handle H1 returns handle H2
CreateProcess("A", bInheritHandles=TRUE) CreateProcess("B", bInheritHandles=TRUE)
CloseHandle(H1) CloseHandle(H2)

What just happened? Since inheritability is a property of the handle, processes A and B inherited both handles H1 and H2, even though what we wanted was for process A to inherit handle H1 and for process B to inherit handle H2.

For a long time, the answer to this problem was the unsatisfactory "You'll just have to serialize your calls to Create­Process­With­Shared­Memory so that thread B won't accidentally cause a handle from thread A to be inherited by process B." Actually, the answer was even worse. You had to serialize all functions that created inheritable handles from the time the handle was created, through the call to Create­Process, and waiting until after all those inheritable handles were made no longer inheritable.

This was a serious problem since who knows what other parts of your program are going to call Create­Process with bInherit­Handles set to TRUE? Sure you can control the calls that your own code made, but what about calls from plug-ins or other unknown components? (This is another case of kernel-colored glasses.)

Windows Vista addresses this problem by allowing you to pass an explicit list of handles you want the bInherit­Handles parameter to apply to. (If you pass an explicit list, then you must pass TRUE for bInherit­Handles.) And as before, for a handle to be inherited, it must be also be marked as inheritable.

Passing the list of handles you want to inherit is a multi-step affair. Let's walk through it:

BOOL CreateProcessWithExplicitHandles(
  __in_opt     LPCTSTR lpApplicationName,
  __inout_opt  LPTSTR lpCommandLine,
  __in_opt     LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpProcessAttributes,
  __in_opt     LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpThreadAttributes,
  __in         BOOL bInheritHandles,
  __in         DWORD dwCreationFlags,
  __in_opt     LPVOID lpEnvironment,
  __in_opt     LPCTSTR lpCurrentDirectory,
  __in         LPSTARTUPINFO lpStartupInfo,
  __out        LPPROCESS_INFORMATION lpProcessInformation,
    // here is the new stuff
  __in         DWORD cHandlesToInherit,
  __in_ecount(cHandlesToInherit) HANDLE *rgHandlesToInherit)
{
 BOOL fSuccess;
 BOOL fInitialized = FALSE;
 SIZE_T size = 0;
 LPPROC_THREAD_ATTRIBUTE_LIST lpAttributeList = NULL;

 fSuccess = cHandlesToInherit < 0xFFFFFFFF / sizeof(HANDLE) &&
            lpStartupInfo->cb == sizeof(*lpStartupInfo);
 if (!fSuccess) {
  SetLastError(ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER);
 }
 if (fSuccess) {
  fSuccess = InitializeProcThreadAttributeList(NULL, 1, 0, &size) ||
             GetLastError() == ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER;
 }
 if (fSuccess) {
  lpAttributeList = reinterpret_cast<LPPROC_THREAD_ATTRIBUTE_LIST>
                                (HeapAlloc(GetProcessHeap(), 0, size));
  fSuccess = lpAttributeList != NULL;
 }
 if (fSuccess) {
  fSuccess = InitializeProcThreadAttributeList(lpAttributeList,
                    1, 0, &size);
 }
 if (fSuccess) {
  fInitialized = TRUE;
  fSuccess = UpdateProcThreadAttribute(lpAttributeList,
                    0, PROC_THREAD_ATTRIBUTE_HANDLE_LIST,
                    rgHandlesToInherit,
                    cHandlesToInherit * sizeof(HANDLE), NULL, NULL);
 }
 if (fSuccess) {
  STARTUPINFOEX info;
  ZeroMemory(&info, sizeof(info));
  info.StartupInfo = *lpStartupInfo;
  info.StartupInfo.cb = sizeof(info);
  info.lpAttributeList = lpAttributeList;
  fSuccess = CreateProcess(lpApplicationName,
                           lpCommandLine,
                           lpProcessAttributes,
                           lpThreadAttributes,
                           bInheritHandles,
                           dwCreationFlags | EXTENDED_STARTUPINFO_PRESENT,
                           lpEnvironment,
                           lpCurrentDirectory,
                           &info.StartupInfo,
                           lpProcessInformation);
 }
 
 if (fInitialized) DeleteProcThreadAttributeList(lpAttributeList);
 if (lpAttributeList) HeapFree(GetProcessHeap(), 0, lpAttributeList);
 return fSuccess;
}

After some initial sanity checks, we start doing real work.

Initializing a PROC_THREAD_ATTRIBUTE_LIST is a two-step affair. First you call Initialize­Proc­Thread­Attribute­List with a NULL attribute list in order to determine how much memory you need to allocate for a one-entry attribute list. After allocating the memory, you call Initialize­Proc­Thread­Attribute­List a second time to do the actual initialization.

After creating the attribute list, you set the one entry by calling Update­Proc­Thread­Attribute­List.

And then it's off to the races. Put that attribute list in a STARTUP­INFO­EX structure, set the EXTENDED_STARTUPINFO_PRESENT flag, and hand everything off to Create­Process.