• #### The only way you're going to wake up next to Claudia Schiffer

Dominic O'Brien, world speed-memorization champion, on his technique for memorizing over 18 decks of shuffled cards in an hour:

"I remember things by personalising them," explains O'Brien, 43. "With playing cards, for instance, I memorise each one as a face. The queen of hearts I think of as Claudia Schiffer, the ace of clubs as Nick Faldo. To get them in sequence I then imagine a journey, say from home to work, and fit the different people into that journey. So for example I wake up beside Claudia Schiffer, get out of bed and trip over Nick Faldo. It's very effective."

Welcome to the World Mind Sports Olympiad.

Other scintillating competitions include "memorizing random digits" and (from 1997) "listing as many similarities as you can think of between the Princess of Wales and an orange."

• #### When cafeteria pricing meets mathematics

Prices in the Microsoft cafeteria are often illogical.

For example, a "special sandwich" costs \$4.25. A piece of whole fruit costs \$0.50. But a "special sandwich with a piece of whole fruit" costs \$4.95.

If you're not careful, the cashier will ring it up as a "special sandwich with a piece of whole fruit" instead of as a "special sandwich" and a "piece of whole fruit".

(I think they eventually fixed this after enough people complained.)

As another example, name-brand bottled water is available in the cafeteria. You can get a 20-ounce bottle for \$0.99 or a one-liter bottle for \$1.99.

One liter is a little under 34 ounces. You're actually better off buying two 20-ounce bottles than one one-liter bottle. Get more water and save a penny.

(For those who have a Wall Street Journal subscription, you can read more about how corporate cafeterias maximize profits in the article Nowadays, Companies Make Money Off You, Right Down to the Last Bite from the 13 November 2002 issue.)

• #### The evolution of dialog templates - 16-bit Extended Templates

The next step in the evolution of dialog templates is the Extended Dialog or DIALOGEX. First, let's look at the 16-bit version.

The 16-bit extended dialog template is purely historical. The only operating systems to support it were the Windows 95/98/Me series. It is interesting only as a missing link in the evolution towards the 32-bit extended dialog template.

The basic rules are the same as for the non-extended template. The extended dialog template starts off with a different header:

```WORD  wDlgVer;      // version number - always 1
WORD  wSignature;   // always 0xFFFF
DWORD dwHelpID;     // help ID
DWORD dwExStyle;    // window extended style
DWORD dwStyle;      // dialog style
BYTE  cItems;       // number of controls in this dialog
WORD  x;            // x-coordinate
WORD  y;            // y-coordinate
WORD  cx;           // width
WORD  cy;           // height
```

The first two fields specify a version number (so far, only version 1 extended dialogs have been defined), and a signature value 0xFFFF which allows this template to be distinguished from a non-extended dialog template.

Next come two new fields. The help identifier is an arbitrary 32-bit value that you can retrieve from the dialog later with the GetWindowContextHelpId function. The extended dialog style you've seen before.

As before, after the header come the strings. First comes the menu, then the class, then dialog title, all encoded the same way as with the non-extended template.

If the DS_SETFONT style is set, then a custom font exists in the template. The format of the font information is slightly different for extended templates. In classic templates, all you get is a WORD of point size and a font name. But in the extended template, the font information is a little richer:

```WORD wPoint;        // point size
WORD wWeight;       // font weight
BYTE bItalic;       // 1 if italic, 0 if not
BYTE bCharSet;      // character set (see CreateFont)
CHAR szFontName[];  // variable-length
```

New fields are the weight, character set, and whether the font is italic.

After the header come the dialog item templates, each of which looks like this:

```DWORD dwHelpID;     // help identifier
DWORD dwExStyle;    // window extended style
DWORD dwStyle;      // window style
WORD  x;            // x-coordinate (DLUs)
WORD  y;            // y-coordinate (DLUs)
WORD  cx;           // width (DLUs)
WORD  cy;           // height (DLUs)
DWORD wID;          // control ID
CHAR  szClassName[];// variable-length (possibly ordinal)
CHAR  szText[];     // variable-length (possibly ordinal)
WORD  cbExtra;      // amount of extra data
BYTE  rgbExtra[cbExtra]; // extra data follows (usually none)
```

This takes the classic item template and adds the following:

• New dwHelpID and dwExStyle fields.
• dwStyle field moved.
• control ID expanded to DWORD.
• cbExtra expanded to WORD.

Not that expanding the control ID to a 32-bit value accomplishes much in 16-bit Windows, but it's there nonetheless.

And that's all.

Now the obligatory annotated hex dump.

```0000  01 00 FF FF 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 C4 00 C8 80  ................
0010  0B 24 00 2C 00 E6 00 5E-00 00 00 52 65 70 6C 61  .\$.,...^...Repla
0020  63 65 00 08 00 90 01 00-00 4D 53 20 53 68 65 6C  ce.......MS Shel
0030  20 44 6C 67 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02   Dlg............
0040  50 04 00 09 00 30 00 08-00 FF FF FF FF 82 46 69  P....0........Fi
0050  26 6E 64 20 77 68 61 74-3A 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  &nd what:.......
0060  00 00 00 00 80 00 83 50-36 00 07 00 72 00 0C 00  .......P6...r...
0070  80 04 00 00 81 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  ................
0080  00 00 02 50 04 00 1A 00-30 00 08 00 FF FF FF FF  ...P....0.......
0090  82 52 65 26 70 6C 61 63-65 20 77 69 74 68 3A 00  .Re&place with:.
00A0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 80 00 83 50 36 00  .............P6.
00B0  18 00 72 00 0C 00 81 04-00 00 81 00 00 00 00 00  ..r.............
00C0  00 00 00 00 00 00 03 00-03 50 05 00 2E 00 68 00  .........P....h.
00D0  0C 00 10 04 00 00 80 4D-61 74 63 68 20 26 77 68  .......Match &wh
00E0  6F 6C 65 20 77 6F 72 64-20 6F 6E 6C 79 00 00 00  ole word only...
00F0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-03 00 01 50 05 00 3E 00  ...........P..>.
0100  3B 00 0C 00 11 04 00 00-80 4D 61 74 63 68 20 26  ;........Match &
0110  63 61 73 65 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01  case............
0120  00 03 50 AE 00 04 00 32-00 0E 00 01 00 00 00 80  ..P....2........
0130  26 46 69 6E 64 20 4E 65-78 74 00 00 00 00 00 00  &Find Next......
0140  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 03-50 AE 00 15 00 32 00 0E  ........P....2..
0150  00 00 04 00 00 80 26 52-65 70 6C 61 63 65 00 00  ......&Replace..
0160  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 03 50 AE 00 26  ............P..&
0170  00 32 00 0E 00 01 04 00-00 80 52 65 70 6C 61 63  .2........Replac
0180  65 20 26 41 6C 6C 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  e &All..........
0190  00 00 00 03 50 AE 00 37-00 32 00 0E 00 02 00 00  ....P..7.2......
01A0  00 80 43 61 6E 63 65 6C-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  ..Cancel........
01B0  00 00 00 00 00 03 50 AE-00 4B 00 32 00 0E 00 0E  ......P..K.2....
01C0  04 00 00 80 26 48 65 6C-70 00 00 00              ....&Help...
```

```0000  01 00         // wVersion
0002  FF FF         // wSignature
0004  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
0008  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
000C  C4 00 C8 80   // dwStyle
0010  0B            // cItems
0011  24 00 2C 00   // x, y
0015  E6 00 5E 00   // cx, cy
```

The header breaks down as follows:

 wVersion = 0x0001 = 1 wSignature = 0xFFFF dwHelpID = 0x00000000 = 0 dwExStyle = 0x00000000 = 0 dwStyle = 0x80C800C4 = WS_POPUP | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | DS_SETFONT | DS_MODALFRAME | DS_3DLOOK cItems = 0x0B = 11 x = 0x0024 = 36 y = 0x002C = 44 cx = 0x00E6 = 230 cy = 0x005E = 94

Next come the menu name, class name, and dialog title:

```0019  00            // no menu
001A  00            // default dialog class
001B  52 65 70 6C 61 63 65 00 // "Replace"
```

Same as the 16-bit classic template.

The presence of DS_SETFONT means that there's font information ahead. This looks slightly different.

```0023  08 00         // wSize = 8
0025  90 01         // wWeight = 0x02BC = 700 = FW_NORMAL
0027  00            // Italic
0028  00            // Character set = 0x00 = ANSI_CHARSET
0029  4D 53 20 53 68 65 6C 20 44 6C 67 00
// "MS Shell Dlg"
```

Now follow the extended dialog item templates. This should all be old hat by now, so I won't go into detail.

```// First control
0035  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
0039  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
003D  00 00 02 50   // dwStyle
0041  04 00 09 00   // x, y
0045  30 00 08 00   // cx, cy
0049  FF FF FF FF   // dwID
004D  82            // szClass = ordinal 0x82 = "static"
004E  46 69 26 6E 64 20 77 68 61 74 3A 00
// "Fi&nd what:"
005A  00 00         // no extra data

// Second control
005C  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
0060  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0064  80 00 83 50   // dwStyle
0068  36 00 07 00   // x, y
006C  72 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
0070  80 04 00 00   // dwID
0074  81            // "edit"
0075  00            // ""
0076  00 00         // no extra data

// Third control
0078  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
007C  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0080  00 00 02 50   // dwStyle
0084  04 00 1A 00   // x, y
0088  30 00 08 00   // cx, cy
008C  FF FF FF FF   // dwID
0090  82            // "static"
0091  52 65 26 70 6C 61 63 65 20 77 69 74 68 3A 00
// "Re&place with:"
00A0  00 00         // no extra data

// Fourth control
00A2  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
00A6  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
00AA  80 00 83 50   // dwStyle
00AE  36 00 18 00   // x, y
00B2  72 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
00B6  81 04 00 00   // dwID
00BA  81            // "edit"
00BB  00            // ""
00BC  00 00         // no extra data

// Fifth control
00BE  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
00C2  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
00C6  03 00 03 50   // dwStyle
00CA  05 00 2E 00   // x, y
00CE  68 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
00D2  10 04 00 00   // dwID
00D6  80            // "button"
00D7  4D 61 74 63 68 20 26 77 68 6F 6C 65 20 77
6F 72 64 20 6F 6E 6C 79 00
// "Match &whole word only"
00EE  00 00         // no extra data

// Sixth control
00F0  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
00F4  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
00F8  03 00 01 50   // dwStyle
00FC  05 00 3E 00   // x, y
0100  3B 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
0104  11 04 00 00   // dwID
0108  80            // "button"
0109  4D 61 74 63 68 20 26 63 61 73 65 00
// "Match &case"
0115  00 00         // no extra data

// Seventh control
0117  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
011B  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
011F  01 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0123  AE 00 04 00   // x, y
0127  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
012B  01 00 00 00   // dwID
012F  80            // "button"
0130  26 46 69 6E 64 20 4E 65 78 74 00
// "&Find Next"
013B  00 00         // no extra data

// Eighth control
013D  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
0141  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0145  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0149  AE 00 15 00   // x, y
014D  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
0151  00 04 00 00   // dwID
0155  80            // "button"
0156  26 52 65 70 6C 61 63 65 00
// "&Replace"
015F  00 00         // no extra data

// Ninth control
0161  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
0165  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0169  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
016D  AE 00 26 00   // x, y
0171  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
0175  01 04 00 00   // dwID
0179  80            // "button"
017A  52 65 70 6C 61 63 65 20 26 41 6C 6C 00
// "Replace &All"
0187  00 00         // no extra data

// Tenth control
0189  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
018D  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0191  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0195  AE 00 37 00   // x, y
0199  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
019D  02 00 00 00   // dwID
01A1  80            // "button"
01A2  43 61 6E 63 65 6C 00
// "Cancel"
01A9  00 00         // no extra data

// Eleventh control
01AB  00 00 00 00   // dwHelpID
01AF  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
01B3  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
01B7  AE 00 4B 00   // x, y
01BB  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
01BF  0E 04 00 00   // dwID
01C3  80            // "button"
01C4  26 48 65 6C 70 00
// "&Help"
01CA  00 00         // no extra data
```

The original dialog template is the one you've seen twice already, with only one change: The DIALOG keyword has been changed to DIALOGEX.

```DIALOGEX 36, 44, 230, 94
...
```

Tomorrow, we reach the modern era with the 32-bit DIALOGEX template.

• #### The evolution of dialog templates - 32-bit Classic Templates

Okay, last time we talked about the 16-bit classic DIALOG template. This time, we're going to talk about the 32-bit classic DIALOG template.

There really isn't much going on. Some 8-bit fields got expanded to 16-bit fields, some 16-bit fields got expanded to 32-bit fields, extended styles were added, and all strings got changed from ANSI to Unicode.

The template starts like this:

```DWORD dwStyle;   // dialog style
DWORD dwExStyle; // extended dialog style
WORD  cItems;    // number of controls in this dialog
WORD  x;         // x-coordinate
WORD  y;         // y-coordinate
WORD  cx;        // width
WORD  cy;        // height
```

This is basically the same as the 16-bit dialog template, except that there's a new `dwExStyle` field, and the `cItems` went from a BYTE to a WORD. Consequently, the maximum number of controls per 32-bit dialog is 65535. That should be enough for a while.

After this header come a series of strings, just like in 16-bit dialog templates. But this time, the strings are Unicode. For example, if you wanted to store the string "Hello", you would write out the twelve bytes

```48 00 65 00 6C 00 6C 00 6F 00 00 00 ; "Hello"
```

As with the 16-bit case, in the 32-bit dialog template, you can often specify an ordinal instead of a string. Here, it's done by writing the bytes FF 00 followed by the 16-bit ordinal (in little-endian format). For example, if you wanted to specify the ordinal 42, you would write out the four bytes

```FF 00 2A 00        ; 00FF followed by WORD (little-endian)
```

The three strings are the same as last time:

• The menu name, which can be a string or an ordinal.
• The class, which must be a string (no ordinals allowed).
• The dialog title, which must be a string (no ordinals allowed).

If the DS_SETFONT style is set, then what follows next is a WORD indicating the point size and a string specifying the font name. Otherwise, there is no font information. Same as in the 16-bit dialog template.

So far, everything has been WORD-aligned.

After the header comes a series of dialog item templates. Each item template begins on a DWORD boundary. (Insert padding if necessary to achieve this.)

```DWORD dwStyle;   // window style
DWORD dwExStyle; // window extended style
WORD  x;         // x-coordinate (DLUs)
WORD  y;         // y-coordinate (DLUs)
WORD  cx;        // width (DLUs)
WORD  cy;        // height (DLUs)
WORD  wID;       // control ID
```

As before, the dialog coordinates are recorded in dialog units (DLUs).

Next comes the class name, either as a null-terminated Unicode string or as an ordinal. The ordinal codes for the six "standard" window classes are the same as for 16-bit dialog templates:

• 0x0080 = "button"
• 0x0081 = "edit"
• 0x0082 = "static"
• 0x0083 = "listbox"
• 0x0084 = "scrollbar"
• 0x0085 = "combobox"

After the class name comes the control text, either as a null-terminated string or as an ordinal, following the same rules as for the 16-bit template. Extra weirdness: To specify an ordinal here, use FFFF instead of 00FF as the ordinal marker. I don't know why.

After the control text comes up to 65535 bytes of "extra data" in the form of a 16-bit count, followed by the actual data. If there is no "extra data", then use a count of zero.

And that's all there is. As with last time, I'll present an annotated dialog template.

```0000  C4 20 C8 80 00 00 00 00-0B 00 24 00 2C 00 E6 00  . ........\$.,...
0010  5E 00 00 00 00 00 52 00-65 00 70 00 6C 00 61 00  ^.....R.e.p.l.a.
0020  63 00 65 00 00 00 08 00-4D 00 53 00 20 00 53 00  c.e.....M.S. .S.
0030  68 00 65 00 6C 00 6C 00-20 00 44 00 6C 00 67 00  h.e.l.l. .D.l.g.
0040  00 00 00 00 00 00 02 50-00 00 00 00 04 00 09 00  .......P........
0050  30 00 08 00 FF FF FF FF-82 00 46 00 69 00 26 00  0.........F.i.&.
0060  6E 00 64 00 20 00 77 00-68 00 61 00 74 00 3A 00  n.d. .w.h.a.t.:.
0070  00 00 00 00 80 00 83 50-00 00 00 00 36 00 07 00  .......P....6...
0080  72 00 0C 00 80 04 FF FF-81 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  r...............
0090  00 00 02 50 00 00 00 00-04 00 1A 00 30 00 08 00  ...P........0...
00A0  FF FF FF FF 82 00 52 00-65 00 26 00 70 00 6C 00  ......R.e.&.p.l.
00B0  61 00 63 00 65 00 20 00-77 00 69 00 74 00 68 00  a.c.e. .w.i.t.h.
00C0  3A 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-80 00 83 50 00 00 00 00  :..........P....
00D0  36 00 18 00 72 00 0C 00-81 04 FF FF 81 00 00 00  6...r...........
00E0  00 00 00 00 03 00 03 50-00 00 00 00 05 00 2E 00  .......P........
00F0  68 00 0C 00 10 04 FF FF-80 00 4D 00 61 00 74 00  h.........M.a.t.
0100  63 00 68 00 20 00 26 00-77 00 68 00 6F 00 6C 00  c.h. .&.w.h.o.l.
0110  65 00 20 00 77 00 6F 00-72 00 64 00 20 00 6F 00  e. .w.o.r.d. .o.
0120  6E 00 6C 00 79 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 03 00 01 50  n.l.y..........P
0130  00 00 00 00 05 00 3E 00-3B 00 0C 00 11 04 FF FF  ......>.;.......
0140  80 00 4D 00 61 00 74 00-63 00 68 00 20 00 26 00  ..M.a.t.c.h. .&.
0150  63 00 61 00 73 00 65 00-00 00 00 00 01 00 03 50  c.a.s.e........P
0160  00 00 00 00 AE 00 04 00-32 00 0E 00 01 00 FF FF  ........2.......
0170  80 00 26 00 46 00 69 00-6E 00 64 00 20 00 4E 00  ..&.F.i.n.d. .N.
0180  65 00 78 00 74 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 01 50  e.x.t..........P
0190  00 00 00 00 AE 00 15 00-32 00 0E 00 00 04 FF FF  ........2.......
01A0  80 00 26 00 52 00 65 00-70 00 6C 00 61 00 63 00  ..&.R.e.p.l.a.c.
01B0  65 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 01 50 00 00 00 00  e..........P....
01C0  AE 00 26 00 32 00 0E 00-01 04 FF FF 80 00 52 00  ..&.2.........R.
01D0  65 00 70 00 6C 00 61 00-63 00 65 00 20 00 26 00  e.p.l.a.c.e. .&.
01E0  41 00 6C 00 6C 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 01 50  A.l.l..........P
01F0  00 00 00 00 AE 00 37 00-32 00 0E 00 02 00 FF FF  ......7.2.......
0200  80 00 43 00 61 00 6E 00-63 00 65 00 6C 00 00 00  ..C.a.n.c.e.l...
0210  00 00 00 00 00 00 01 50-00 00 00 00 AE 00 4B 00  .......P......K.
0220  32 00 0E 00 0E 04 FF FF-80 00 26 00 48 00 65 00  2.........&.H.e.
0230  6C 00 70 00 00 00 00 00                          l.p.....
```

```0000  C4 20 C8 80  // dwStyle
0004  00 00 00 00  // dwExStyle
0008  0B 00        // cItems
000A  24 00 2C 00  // x, y
000E  E6 00 5E 00  // cx, cy
```

In other words, the header says

 dwStyle = 0x80C820C4 = WS_POPUP | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU |   DS_CONTEXTHELP | DS_SETFONT | DS_MODALFRAME | DS_3DLOOK dwExStyle = 0x00000000 cItems = 0x0B = 11 x = 0x0024 = 36 y = 0x002C = 44 cx = 0x00E6 = 230 cy = 0x005E = 94

After the header come the menu name, class name, and dialog title:

```0012  00 00         // no menu
0014  00 00         // default dialog class
0016  52 00 65 00 70 00 6C 00 61 00 63 00
65 00 00 00   // "Replace"
```

Again, since the DS_SETFONT bit is set in the style, the next section describes the font to be used by the dialog:

```0026  08 00         // wSize = 8
0028  4D 00 53 00 20 00 53 00 68 00 65 00 6C 00
6C 00 20 00 44 00 6C 00 67 00 00 00
// "MS Shell Dlg"
```

This dialog box uses 8pt "MS Shell Dlg" as its dialog font.

Next come the eleven dialog item templates. Not remember that each template must be DWORD-aligned, so we need some padding here to get up to a four-byte boundary.

```0042 00 00          // Padding for alignment
```

Now that we are once again DWORD-aligned, we can read the first dialog item template.

```0044  00 00 02 50   // dwStyle
0048  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
004C  04 00 09 00   // x, y
0050  30 00 08 00   // cx, cy
0054  FF FF         // wID
0056  FF FF 82 00   // "static"
005A  46 00 69 00 26 00
0060  6E 00 64 00 20 00 77 00-68 00 61 00 74 00 3A 00
0070  00 00         // "Fi&nd what:"
0072  00 00         // no extra data
```

Notice here that the "static" class was encoded as an ordinal. The template for this item is therefore

 dwStyle = 0x50020000 = WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP | SS_LEFT dwExStyle = 0x00000000 x = 0x0004 = 4 y = 0x0009 = 9 cx = 0x0030 = 48 cy = 0x0008 = 8 wID = 0xFFFF = -1 szClass = ordinal 0x0082 = "static" szText = "Fi&nd what:"

The other controls are similarly unexciting.

```// Second control
0074  80 00 83 50   // dwStyle
0078  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
007C  36 00 07 00   // x, y
0080  72 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
0084  80 04         // wID
0086  FF FF 81 00   // "edit"
008A  00 00         // ""
008C  00 00         // no extra data
008E  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Third control
0090  00 00 02 50   // dwStyle
0094  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0098  04 00 1A 00   // x, y
009C  30 00 08 00   // cx, cy
00A0  FF FF         // wID
00A2  FF FF 82 00   // "static"
00A6  52 00 65 00 26 00 70 00 6C 00
00B0  61 00 63 00 65 00 20 00 77 00 69 00 74 00 68 00
00C0  3A 00 00 00   // "Re&place with:"
00C4  00 00         // no extra data
00C6  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Fourth control
00C8  80 00 83 50   // dwStyle
00CC  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
00D0  36 00 18 00   // x, y
00D4  72 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
00D8  81 04         // wID
00DA  FF FF 81 00   // "edit"
00DE  00 00         // ""
00E0  00 00         // no extra data
00E2  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Fifth control
00E4  03 00 03 50   // dwStyle
00E8  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
00EC  05 00 2E 00   // x, y
00F0  68 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
00F4  10 04         // wID
00F6  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
00FA  4D 00 61 00 74 00
0100  63 00 68 00 20 00 26 00 77 00 68 00 6F 00 6C 00
0110  65 00 20 00 77 00 6F 00 72 00 64 00 20 00 6F 00
0120  6E 00 6C 00 79 00 00 00
// "Match &whole word only"
0128  00 00         // no extra data
012A  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Sixth control
012C  03 00 01 50   // dwStyle
0130  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0134  05 00 3E 00   // x, y
0138  3B 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
013C  11 04         // wID
013E  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
0142  4D 00 61 00 74 00 63 00 68 00 20 00 26 00
0150  63 00 61 00 73 00 65 00 00 00
// "Match &case"
015A  00 00         // no extra data

// Seventh control
015C  01 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0160  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0164  AE 00 04 00   // x, y
0168  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
016C  01 00         // wID
016E  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
0172  26 00 46 00 69 00 6E 00 64 00 20 00 4E 00
0180  65 00 78 00 74 00 00 00
// "&Find Next"
0188  00 00         // no extra data
018A  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Eighth control
018C  00 00 01 50   // dwStyle
0190  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
0194  AE 00 15 00   // x, y
0198  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
019C  00 04         // wID
019E  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
01A2  26 00 52 00 65 00-70 00 6C 00 61 00 63 00
01B0  65 00 00 00   // "&Replace"
01B4  00 00         // no extra data
01B6  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Ninth control
01B8  00 00 01 50   // dwStyle
01BC  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
01C0  AE 00 26 00   // x, y
01C4  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
01C8  01 04         // wID
01CA  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
01CE  52 00
01D0  65 00 70 00 6C 00 61 00 63 00 65 00 20 00 26 00
01E0  41 00 6C 00 6C 00 00 00
// "Replace &All"
01E8  00 00         // no extra data
01EA  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Tenth control
01EC  00 00 01 50   // dwStyle
01F0  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
01F4  AE 00 37 00   // x, y
01F8  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
01FC  02 00         // wID
01FE  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
0202  43 00 61 00 6E 00 63 00 65 00 6C 00 00 00
// "Cancel"
0210  00 00         // no extra data
0212  00 00         // padding to achieve DWORD alignment

// Eleventh control
0214  00 00 01 50   // dwStyle
0218  00 00 00 00   // dwExStyle
021C  AE 00 4B 00   // x, y
0220  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
0224  0E 04         // wID
0226  FF FF 80 00   // "button"
022A  26 00 48 00 65 00 6C 00 70 00 00 00
// "&Help"
0236  00 00         // no extra data
```

Whew. Tedious and entirely unexciting. Here's the original resource compiler source code that we reverse-engineered:

```DIALOG 36, 44, 230, 94
STYLE WS_POPUP | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | DS_MODALFRAME | DS_3DLOOK | NOT WS_VISIBLE
CAPTION "Replace"
FONT 8, "MS Shell Dlg"
BEGIN
CONTROL "Fi&nd What:", -1, "static", WS_GROUP | SS_LEFT,
4, 9, 48, 8

CONTROL "", 0x0480, "edit",
WS_BORDER | WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | ES_AUTOHSCROLL,
54, 7, 114, 12

CONTROL "Re&place with:", -1, "static", WS_GROUP | SS_LEFT,
4, 26, 48, 8

CONTROL "", 0x0481, "edit",
WS_BORDER | WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | ES_AUTOHSCROLL,
54, 24, 114, 12

CONTROL "Match &whole word only", 0x0410, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_AUTOCHECKBOX,
5, 46, 104, 12

CONTROL "Match &case", 0x0411, "button",
WS_TABSTOP | BS_AUTOCHECKBOX,
5, 62, 59, 12

CONTROL "&Find Next", IDOK, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_DEFPUSHBUTTON,
174, 4, 50, 14

CONTROL "&Replace", 0x0400, "button",
WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 21, 50, 14

CONTROL "Replace &All", 0x0401, "button",
WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 38, 50, 14

CONTROL "Cancel", IDCANCEL, "button",
WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 55, 50, 14

CONTROL "Cancel", 0x040E, "button",
WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 75, 50, 14
END
```

As before, we didn't explicitly say "DS_SETFONT" in the dialog's STYLE directive since that is implied by the "FONT" directive, and we took advantage of the fact that WS_VISIBLE is on by default.

And you probably recognize this dialog from yesterday. It's the replace dialog from findtext.dlg. (Though it's not exactly the same since the findtext.dlg template uses some shorthand directives like DEFPUSHBUTTON instead of manually writing out the details of the button control as a CONTROL.)

Next time: The 16-bit extended dialog template, also known as DIALOGEX.

• #### Drug dealers have to pay taxes too.

In the state of Kansas, "The fact that dealing marijuana and controlled substances is illegal does not exempt it from taxation. Therefore drug dealers are required by law to purchase drug tax stamps."

• #### The evolution of dialog templates - 16-bit Classic Templates

In the history of Windows, there have been four versions of dialog templates. And despite the changes, you'll see that they're basically all the same.

First, there was the classic Windows 1.0 dialog template. It starts like this:

```DWORD dwStyle; // dialog style
BYTE  cItems;  // number of controls in this dialog
WORD  x;       // x-coordinate
WORD  y;       // y-coordinate
WORD  cx;      // width
WORD  cy;      // height
```

Notice that this is where the 255-controls-per-dialog limit comes from on 16-bit Windows, since the field that records the number of controls on the dialog is only a byte.

After this header come a series of strings. All strings in the 16-bit dialog template permit a null-terminated ANSI string. For example, if you wanted to store the string "Hello", you would write out the six bytes

```48 65 6C 6C 6F 00  ; "Hello"
```

(As a special case of this: If you write out a single 00 byte, then that represents a null string. Handy when you don't actually want to store a string but the dialog format requires you to store one.)

Sometimes you are allowed to specify a 16-bit ordinal value instead of a string. In that case, you write out the byte 0xFF followed by the ordinal. For example, if you wanted to specify the ordinal 42, you would write out the three bytes

```FF 2A 00           ; FF followed by WORD (little-endian)
```

Okay, back to the dialog template. After the header, there are three strings:

• The menu name, which can be a string or an ordinal. This is typically null, indicating that you don't want a menu. If non-null, then the menu will be loaded via LoadMenu using the specified string or resource from the instance handle passed to the dialog creation function via the HINSTANCE parameter.
• The class, which must be a string (no ordinals allowed). This is typically also null, indicating that you want the default dialog class. We have seen earlier how you can override the default dialog class to get special behavior. If non-null, the class will be also be looked up relative to the instance handle passed to the dialog creation function via the HINSTANCE parameter.
• The dialog title, which must be a string (no ordinals allowed).

If the DS_SETFONT style is set, then what follows next is a WORD indicating the point size and a string specifying the font name. Otherwise, there is no font information.

That's the end of the header section. Next come a series of dialog item templates, one for each control.

Each item template begins the same way:

```WORD  x;       // x-coordinate (DLUs)
WORD  y;       // y-coordinate (DLUs)
WORD  cx;      // width (DLUs)
WORD  cy;      // height (DLUs)
WORD  wID;     // control ID
DWORD dwStyle; // window style
```

Recall that the dialog coordinates are recorded in dialog units (DLUs). Four x-DLUs and eight y-DLUs equals one "average" character.

After the fixed start of the item template comes the class name, either as a null-terminated ANSI string or (and this is particularly weird) as single byte in the range 0x80 through 0xFF which encodes one of the "standard" window classes:

• 0x80 = "button"
• 0x81 = "edit"
• 0x82 = "static"
• 0x83 = "listbox"
• 0x84 = "scrollbar"
• 0x85 = "combobox"

(Note that this encoding means that the first character of a window class name cannot be an extended character if you want to use it in a dialog template!)

After the class name comes the control text, either as a null-terminated string or as an ordinal. If you use an ordinal, then the lpszName member of the CREATESTRUCT is a pointer to the three-byte ordinal sequence (0xFF followed by the ordinal); otherwise it's a pointer to the string. The only control I know of that knows what to do with the ordinal is the static control if you put it into one of the image modes (SS_ICON or SS_BITMAP), in which case the ordinal is a resource identifier for the image that the static displays.

After the control text comes up to 256 bytes of "extra data" in the form of a byte count, followed by the actual data. If there is no "extra data", then use a byte count of zero.

When the dialog manager creates a control, it passes a pointer to the "extra" data as the final LPVOID parameter to the CreateWindowEx function. (As far as I can tell, there is no way to tell the resource compiler to insert this extra data. It's one of those lurking features that nobody has taken advantage of yet.)

Okay, that's all great and theoretical. But sometimes you just need to see it in front of you to understand it. So let's take apart an actual 16-bit dialog resource. I took this one from COMMCTRL.DLL; it's the search/replace dialog.

```0000  C0 00 C8 80 0B 24 00 2C-00 E6 00 5E 00 00 00 52  .....\$.,...^...R
0010  65 70 6C 61 63 65 00 08-00 48 65 6C 76 00 04 00  eplace...Helv...
0020  09 00 30 00 08 00 FF FF-00 00 00 50 82 46 69 26  ..0........P.Fi&
0030  6E 64 20 57 68 61 74 3A-00 00 36 00 07 00 72 00  nd What:..6...r.
0040  0C 00 80 04 80 00 83 50-81 00 00 04 00 1A 00 30  .......P.......0
0050  00 08 00 FF FF 00 00 00-50 82 52 65 26 70 6C 61  ........P.Re&pla
0060  63 65 20 57 69 74 68 3A-00 00 36 00 18 00 72 00  ce With:..6...r.
0070  0C 00 81 04 80 00 83 50-81 00 00 05 00 2E 00 68  .......P.......h
0080  00 0C 00 10 04 03 00 03-50 80 4D 61 74 63 68 20  ........P.Match
0090  26 57 68 6F 6C 65 20 57-6F 72 64 20 4F 6E 6C 79  &Whole Word Only
00A0  00 00 05 00 3E 00 3B 00-0C 00 11 04 03 00 01 50  ....>.;........P
00B0  80 4D 61 74 63 68 20 26-43 61 73 65 00 00 AE 00  .Match &Case....
00C0  04 00 32 00 0E 00 01 00-01 00 03 50 80 26 46 69  ..2........P.&Fi
00D0  6E 64 20 4E 65 78 74 00-00 AE 00 15 00 32 00 0E  nd Next......2..
00E0  00 00 04 00 00 03 50 80-26 52 65 70 6C 61 63 65  ......P.&Replace
00F0  00 00 AE 00 26 00 32 00-0E 00 01 04 00 00 03 50  ....&.2........P
0100  80 52 65 70 6C 61 63 65-20 26 41 6C 6C 00 00 AE  .Replace &All...
0110  00 37 00 32 00 0E 00 02-00 00 00 03 50 80 43 61  .7.2........P.Ca
0120  6E 63 65 6C 00 00 AE 00-4B 00 32 00 0E 00 0E 04  ncel....K.2.....
0130  00 00 03 50 80 26 48 65-6C 70 00 00              ...P.&Help..
```

```0000  C0 00 C8 80  // dwStyle
0004  0B           // cItems
0005  24 00 2C 00  // x, y
0009  E6 00 5E 00  // cx, cy
```

In other words, the header says

 dwStyle = 0x80C800C0 = WS_POPUP | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | DS_SETFONT | DS_MODALFRAME cItems = 0x0B = 11 x = 0x0024 = 36 y = 0x002C = 44 cx = 0x00E6 = 230 cy = 0x005E = 94

After the header come the menu name, class name, and dialog title:

```000D  00            // no menu
000E  00            // default dialog class
000F  52 65 70 6C 61 63 65 00 // "Replace"
```

Now, since the DS_SETFONT bit is set in the style, the next section describes the font to be used by the dialog:

```0017  08 00         // wSize = 8
0019  48 65 6C 76 00 // "Helv"
```

Aha, this dialog box uses 8pt Helv.

Next come the eleven dialog item templates.

```001E  04 00 09 00   // x, y
0022  30 00 08 00   // cx, cy
0026  FF FF         // wID
0028  00 00 00 50   // dwStyle
```

So this dialog item template says

 x = 0x0004 = 4 y = 0x0009 = 9 cx = 0x0030 = 48 cy = 0x0008 = 8 wID = 0xFFFF = -1 dwStyle = 0x50000000 = WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | SS_LEFT

How did I know that the style value 0x0000 should be interpreted as SS_LEFT and not, say, BS_PUSHBUTTON? Because the window class tells me that what I have is a static control.

```002C  82            // "static"
```

After the class name comes the control text.

```002D  46 69 26 6E 64 20 57 68 61 74 3A 00 // "Fi&nd What:"
```

And finally (for this dialog item template), we specify that we have no extra data:

```0039  00            // no extra data
```

Now we repeat the above exercise for the other ten controls. I'll just summarize here:

```// Second control
003A  36 00 07 00   // x, y
003E  72 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
0042  80 04         // wID
0044  80 00 83 50   // dwStyle
0048  81            // "edit"
0049  00            // ""
004A  00            // no extra data

// Third control
004B  04 00 1A 00   // x, y
004F  30 00 08 00   // cx, cy
0053  FF FF         // wID
0055  00 00 00 50   // dwStyle
0059  82            // "static"
005A  52 65 26 70 6C 61 63 65 20 57 69 74 68 3A 00
// "Re&place With:"
0069  00            // no extra data

// Fourth control
006A  36 00 18 00   // x, y
006E  72 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
0072  81 04         // wID
0074  80 00 83 50   // dwStyle
0078  81            // "edit"
0079  00            // ""
007A  00            // no extra data

// Fifth control
007B  05 00 2E 00   // x, y
007F  68 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
0083  10 04         // wID
0085  03 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0089  80            // "button"
008A  4D 61 74 63 68 20 26 57 68 6F 6C 65 20 57
6F 72 64 20 4F 6E 6C 79 00
// "Match &Whole Word Only"
00A1  00            // no extra data

// Sixth control
00A2  05 00 3E 00   // x, y
00A6  3B 00 0C 00   // cx, cy
00AA  11 04         // wID
00AC  03 00 01 50   // dwStyle
00B0  80            // "button"
00B1  4D 61 74 63 68 20 26 43 61 73 65 00
// "Match &Case"
00BD  00            // no extra data

// Seventh control
00BE  AE 00 04 00   // x, y
00C2  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
00C6  01 00         // wID
00C8  01 00 03 50   // dwStyle
00CC  80            // "button"
00CD  26 46 69 6E 64 20 4E 65 78 74 00
// "&Find Next"
00D8  00            // no extra data

// Eighth control
00D9  AE 00 15 00   // x, y
00DD  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
00E1  00 04         // wID
00E3  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
00E7  80            // "button"
00E8  26 52 65 70 6C 61 63 65 00
// "&Replace"
00F1  00            // no extra data

// Ninth control
00F2  AE 00 26 00   // x, y
00F6  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
00FA  01 04         // wID
00FC  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0100  80            // "button"
0101  52 65 70 6C 61 63 65 20 26 41 6C 6C 00
// "Replace &All"
010E  00            // no extra data

// Tenth control
010F  AE 00 37 00   // x, y
0113  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
0117  02 00         // wID
0119  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
011D  80            // "button"
011E  43 61 6E 63 65 6C 00
// "Cancel"
0125  00            // no extra data

// Eleventh control
0126  AE 00 4B 00   // x, y
012A  32 00 0E 00   // cx, cy
012E  0E 04         // wID
0130  00 00 03 50   // dwStyle
0134  80            // "button"
0135  26 48 65 6C 70 00
// "&Help"
013B  00            // no extra data
```

And that's the dialog template. We can now reconstruct the resource compiler source code from this template:

```DIALOG 36, 44, 230, 94
STYLE WS_POPUP | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | DS_MODALFRAME | NOT WS_VISIBLE
CAPTION "Replace"
FONT 8, "Helv"
BEGIN
CONTROL "Fi&nd What:", -1, "static", SS_LEFT,
4, 9, 48, 8

CONTROL "", 0x0480, "edit",
WS_BORDER | WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | ES_AUTOHSCROLL,
54, 7, 114, 12

CONTROL "Re&place With:", -1, "static", SS_LEFT,
4, 26, 48, 8

CONTROL "", 0x0481, "edit",
WS_BORDER | WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | ES_AUTOHSCROLL,
54, 24, 114, 12

CONTROL "Match &Whole Word Only", 0x0410, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_AUTOCHECKBOX,
5, 46, 104, 12

CONTROL "Match &Case", 0x0411, "button",
WS_TABSTOP | BS_AUTOCHECKBOX,
5, 62, 59, 12

CONTROL "&Find Next", IDOK, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_DEFPUSHBUTTON,
174, 4, 50, 14

CONTROL "&Replace", 0x0400, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 21, 50, 14

CONTROL "Replace &All", 0x0401, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 38, 50, 14

CONTROL "Cancel", IDCANCEL, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 55, 50, 14

CONTROL "Cancel", 0x040E, "button",
WS_GROUP | WS_TABSTOP | BS_PUSHBUTTON,
174, 75, 50, 14
END
```

Notice that we didn't explicitly say "DS_SETFONT" in the dialog's STYLE directive since that is implied by the "FONT" directive. And since WS_VISIBLE is on by default, we didn't have to say it; rather we had to explicitly refute it in the places it wasn't wanted.

Now if you take a look in your SDK header files, you'll find dlgs.h and findtext.dlg which pretty much match up with the template above, giving names to the magic values like 0x0400 and positioning the controls in the same place as above. You'll find some minor differences, though, since the header files in the SDK are for the 32-bit Find/Replace dialog and the one above is the 16-bit Find/Replace dialog, but you'll see that it still matches up pretty well.

Next time: The 32-bit DIALOG template.

• #### Too late, Mr. Jenkins. You were an F7 back at question 2

The story of somebody who worked for a job screening service. Companies hired the service to do preliminary filtering of job applicants. The best part: When applicants mistake the screener for the receptionist.

When I launched into the actual interview, it really pissed them off. They'd get furious that the freaking receptionist had the audacity to waste their time by ... And then round about question 5 it would dawn on them that this was the interview. I could hear the quick catch in their speech as it hit them, and the sick pause as they thought back over how they'd been behaving for the past several minutes. It was the attempts at damage control that I really found hilarious. Suddenly, we were best pals. They almost always thought that using my first name as much as possible might somehow make up for their earlier suggestion that I make it snappy. Too late, Mr. Jenkins. You were an F7 back at question 2.
• #### The evolution of dialog templates - Introduction

In the history of Windows, there have been four versions of dialog templates. And despite the changes, you'll see that they're basically all the same.

My secret goal in this six-part series is to address questions people have had along the lines of "I'm trying to generate a dialog template in code, and it's not working. What am I doing wrong?"

As it turns out, that you can get the resource compiler to tell you what you're doing wrong. Take the template that you're trying to generate, create an *.rc file for it and run it through the resource compiler. Attach the resource to a dummy program and dump the bytes! Compare the compiler-generated template against the one you generated. Look for the difference.

In other words: To see what you're doing wrong, take somebody who does it right and compare. Clearly there's a difference somewhere. It's just bytes.

Anyway, enough of the rant against laziness. The next several days will cover the evolution of the dialog template, with annotated byte dumps for people who are trying to figure out why their dialog template isn't working.

Non-geeks may want to go into hibernation for a while, since this will take over a week to play out. I'll try to keep you amused with the non-technical side-postings.

• #### Exploding frying pans

Last year there was a recall of exploding frying pans. For some reason I found this funny.

"The pans can explode or separate when preheated, used on high heat or used for frying," the safety commission said in a statement.

It explodes when you fry something in it.

Apparently "frying stuff" was not in the test plan for the frying pans.