I had another great question from a customer the other day, and I thought that his question was the perfect impetus for me to write blog that explained the different modes of IIS Express.
The customer's issue was that he was trying to run IIS Express from a command-line by specifying the path to a folder and he wanted to use that with SSL. He couldn't find a way to accomplish that, so he asked Scott Hanselman if there was a switch that he was missing, and Scott sent him my way. In the meantime, he was copying one of the IIS Express template ApplicationHost.config files and configuring SSL by modifying the XML programmatically.
First of all, the short answer is that there isn't some form of "/https" switch for IIS Express that the customer was asking about.
But that being said, this seemed like a great occasion for me to explain a little bit of design architecture for IIS Express, which might help everyone understand a little bit about what's going on behind the scenes when you run IIS Express.
In case you weren't aware, there are actually two modes that you can use with IIS Express:
Having said that, I'll explain what both of those fancy titles actually mean, and how you can use IIS Express with SSL.
When you are using Personal Web Server Mode, one ApplicationHost.config file is created per user by default, (unless an alternate file is specified on the command-line), and by default that ApplicationHost.config file is kept in your "%UserProfile%\Documents\IISExpress\config" folder.
In this mode, websites are persistent like they are with the full version of IIS, and the template that is used to create the per-user ApplicationHost.config file is located at:
Note: When you are using Personal Web Server Mode, your default website is named "WebSite1".
The general syntax for Personal Web Server Mode is:
iisexpress.exe [/config:config-file] [/site:site-name] [/systray:true|false] [/siteid:site-id] [/userhome:user-home]
If you are using IIS Express from a command-line with no parameters, or you are using IIS Express with WebMatrix or Visual Studio, then you are using Personal Web Server Mode. You can use SSL by enabling HTTPS in either WebMatrix or Visual Studio, or you can modify your ApplicationHost.config file directly and add an HTTPS binding to a website.
When you are using "Application Server Mode," a temporary ApplicationHost.config file generated when IIS Express starts in the user's "%TEMP%\iisexpress" folder.
In this mode, sites are transient like they are with Cassini, and the template that is used to create the temporary ApplicationHost.config file is located at:
Note: When you are using Application Server Mode, your default website is named "Development Web Site".
The general syntax for Application Server Mode is:
iisexpress.exe /path:app-path [/port:port-number] [/clr:clr-version] [/systray:true|false]
If you are using IIS Express from a command-line by specifying the path to a folder, then you are using Application Server Mode, and unfortunately you can't use SSL with this mode.
As I have already mentioned, if you are using Personal Web Server Mode, you can use SSL by enabling HTTPS in WebMatrix or Visual Studio if you are using either of those tools, or you can modify your ApplicationHost.config file directly and add an HTTPS binding to a website.
However, there is no way to specify HTTPS for Application Server Mode; but that being said, there are definitely workarounds that you can use.
Copying the template file like the customer was doing is a good place to start. But I need to state an important warning: you should never modify the actual template files that are installed with IIS Express! However, if you copy the template files somewhere else on your system, you can modify the copied files as much as you want.
If you are using IIS 8 Express, we've made it possible to use AppCmd.exe with any ApplicationHost.config file by using the "/apphostconfig" switch. So instead of modifying the XML directly, you can use AppCmd.exe to make your changes for you.
For example, the following batch file creates a temporary website and sets it up for use with HTTPS:
@echo off pushd "%~dp0" REM Create the website's folders. md %SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp md %SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\wwwroot md %SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\config REM Copy the template configuration file. copy "%ProgramFiles%\IIS Express\AppServer\ApplicationHost.config" %SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\config REM Configure the website's home directory. "%ProgramFiles%\IIS Express\appcmd.exe" set config -section:system.ApplicationHost/sites /"[name='Development Web Site'].[path='/'].[path='/'].physicalPath:%SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\wwwroot" /commit:apphost /apphostconfig:%SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\config\ApplicationHost.config REM Configure the website for SSL. "%ProgramFiles%\IIS Express\appcmd.exe" set config -section:system.ApplicationHost/sites /+"[name='Development Web Site'].bindings.[protocol='https',bindingInformation='127.0.0.1:8443:']" /commit:apphost /apphostconfig:%SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\config\ApplicationHost.config REM Enable directory browsing so this example works without a home page. "%ProgramFiles%\IIS Express\appcmd.exe" set config "Development Web Site" -section:system.webServer/directoryBrowse /enabled:"True" /commit:apphost /apphostconfig:%SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\config\ApplicationHost.config REM Run the website with IIS Express. "%ProgramFiles%\IIS Express\iisexpress.exe" /config:%SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp\config\ApplicationHost.config /siteid:1 /systray:false REM Clean up the website folders. rd /q /s %SystemDrive%\myhttpstemp popd
As you can see in the above example, this is a little more involved than simply invoking Application Server Mode with a switch to enable HTTPS, but it's still very easy to do. The changes that we've made in IIS 8 Express make it easy to script Personal Web Server Mode in order to enable SSL for a temporary website.
I hope this information makes using the various IIS Express modes and SSL a little clearer, and you can get IIS 8 Express by following the link in the following blog post:
Nice, but why oh why did you put config files in My Documents? Please read the guidelines for developing for windows, and read about AppData.
The configuration files for IIS Express are considered as project files, and they are designed to be edited by end-users, therefore the My Documents folder makes the most sense.
For example, all of the files for your Visual Studio projects (solutions, code files, includes, etc.) are all kept in your My Documents folder. With IIS Express, you can create multiple ApplicationHost.config files, one for each project if you so desire, and you are also free to modify the ApplicationHost.config file that is created by IIS Express. Because of this, it is considerably more intuitive to place the files in a primary location where users can easily find their files (%USERPROFILE%\Documents\IISExpress). If we had used AppData, then the files would have been buried in a hierarchy under a path that is hidden by default, which would be a very un-user-friendly experience for developers that want to modify their settings (e.g. %USERPROFILE%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\IISExpress).
However, if we had never intended for users to modify their ApplicationHost.config files, then you are correct – the AppData path would have certainly made sense.
How do you change between Personal Web Server Mode and Application Server Mode?
The mode is determined based on how you call iisexpress.exe:
You are using Personal Web Server Mode if you start iisexpress.exe with no parameters, or with the /config, /site, or /siteid parameters
You are using Application Server Mode if you start iisexpress.exe with the /path parameter
Thanks a lot.
I'm trying to change the port number and SSL doesn't work. Any suggestion? Thanks.