There are really 2 ways to get a SPClaimProvider registered – 1 via a Farm Feature activation.  The other is via PowerShell. 

However, the documentation on how to remove is not that clear.

The following code will remove it based upon a TypeName.  Other identifiers can be used.

In order to remove:

Get-SPClaimProvider | ForEach-Object { 
    Write-Host $_.TypeName
    IF ( $_.TypeName -eq "SimpleClaimsProvider.LVClaimsProvider")
        {
            Write-Host "Found"
            $cp = $_
        }
    
    }
    
    
$cp.DisplayName

Remove-SPClaimProvider $cp