Learning a new programming language can affect the way you think. While most modern languages are Turing Complete and can theoretically all accomplish the same things, that’s not practically true. Each language has its own strengths of expressiveness. For instance, trying to write dynamically typed code in C++ is possible, but a pain in the neck. You would have to implement your own type system to do so. Each language makes certain things easy and other things hard. Learning different languages then exposes you to different approaches. Each approach provides a different way of thinking and a set of tools supporting that way of thinking. What follows are some of the languages I’ve learned and what I think they provide. This list is limited to languages I’ve studied in at least a little depth. There are many more languages out there that may be useful. If you have additional suggestions, please make them in the comments.