Stuart Kent - Software Modeling and Visualization
An important part of my job is to analyze requirements and write specifications. I have found the technique of storyboarding to be extremely effective. A storyboard is a concrete rendition of a particular scenario - could be a use case or an XP story (see Martin Fowler on UseCasesAndStories for an explanation of the difference). Not only are storyboards great for sorting out requirements, they are also effective in communicating what needs to be built to developers, and as a starting point for the development of tests.
If what you are building is exposed to the user through UI, then the most likely form of your storyboard is a click-through of the UI. If what you are building is infrastructure, say an API, then your storyboard might be a click-through of the experience a developer goes through in authoring code that uses the API, or it might be a filmstrip - a series of object diagrams that illustrate what happens to the state of the system as methods are executed.
Tools that I have found to be particularly effective in developing storyboards, especially those that click-through a UI experience, are Powerpoint and Visio. You can really bring storyboards alive in Powerpoint using a combination of moving through slides, using its custom animation capabilities, and by mixing and matching graphics from multiple sources. And the Windows XP template in Visio is pretty useful too. I've put up an article with specific hints and tips on using Powerpoint and Visio for this purpose.
Interestingly, I soon move from sketching a storyboard on paper or the whiteboard to committing it to Powerpoint, as the latter imposes a discipline that forces you to make decisions and care about the detail. It's so easy to continue hand-waiving and putting off those hard decisions at the whiteboard. I don't spend a large amount of time getting the UI 'just so'. It just needs to be good enough to tease out those important decisions about what the requirements actually are.
If anyone has suggestions for alternative tools that could be used for this purpose, then please add them as comments to this post.
Underlying Dan's article seemed to be the assumption that models are just used as input to code generation. To be fair, the article was entirely focused on the OMG's view of model driven development, dubbed MDA, which tends to lean that way. My own belief is that there are many useful things you can use models for, other than code generation, but that's the topic of a different post. I'll just focus here on code generation.
So which path to follow? Translationist or elaborationist?
In the translationist approach, the model is really a programming language and the code generator a compiler. Unless you are going to debug the generated (compiled) code, this means that you'll need to develop a complete debugging and testing experience around the so-called modeling language. This, in turn, requires the language to be precisely defined, and to be rich enough to express all aspects of the target system. If the language has graphical elements, then this approach is tantamount to building a visual programming language. The construction of such a language and associated tooling is a major task that requires specialist skills. It will probably be done by a tool vendor in domains where there is enough of a market to warrant the initial investment. Indeed, one doesn't have to look far for examples. There are several companies who have built businesses on the back of this approach to MDA, especially in the domain of real-time, embedded systems. And, for obvious reasons, they have been leading efforts to define a programming language subset of UML, called Executable UML, xUML or xtUML, depending on which company you talk to.
In contrast, the elaborationist approach to code generation does not require the same degree of specialist skill or upfront investment. It can start out small and grow organically. However, there are pitfalls to watch out for. Here's some that I've identified:
Of course, we have been talking to our customers and partners about their needs in this area. But we're always to keen to receive more feedback. If you've been using code generation, then I'd like to hear from you. Has it been successful? What techniques have you been using to write the generators? To write the models? What pitfalls have you encountered? What development tools would have made the job easier?
Here are a few techniques I have found useful for building storyboards or click-throughs using Powerpoint and Visio. If you have further suggestions please add them as comments to this article.
Making parts appear and disappear
Use custom animation in powerpoint. You can change the order in which things appear/disappear, and decide whether the effect should happen on mouse click or automatically after the previous effect. Or copy the slide and add/remove the part to/from the new slide. Animation will happen through slide transitions.
Don't do everything in one slide
Otherwise the animation will become unmanageable. I tend to have one slide per step in the scenario. Use your common sense to decide on the granularity of steps.
Use 'callouts' to comment on aspects of the scenario
A callout is a box with text, that has a line attached which can point to a particular aspect of the graphic. I tend to color my text boxes light yellow (like a yellow post-it note). Remember callouts can be made to appear and disappear too. Using callouts saves having to have separate slides with text notes on, which avoids breaking up the flow. The notes can also be set in context.
How to get a mouse pointer to move
Paste in a bitmap of the pointer. Select the bitmap. Use SlideShow > Custom Animation > Add Effect > Motion Paths to define a path along which the pointer should move.
Build/get a graphic for your application shell
A graphic of the application shell can be used as a backdrop for all the other animation. Use Alt-PrintScreen to create a bitmap of the shell for your running application. This works if you're building a plugin for an existing application, or you have an existing application with a similar shell to the one you're storyboarding. Alternatively build a graphic of the shell using the Windows XP template in Visio.