IIS 6.0 introduced a lot of features to increase reliability and security. As an architectural change the worker process w3wp.exe was introduced. To increase security IIS 6.0 by default launched the worker process using the NTAuthority\Network Service account. Network Service is a low privilege predefined account that was introduced in Windows 2003. All guidance/documentation recommend running the worker process under the Network Service.
With IIS 7.0 a new concept of ApplicationPoolIdentity was introduced. IIS 7.0 creates an ephemeral configuration file in C:\inetpub\temp\appPools and uses it. The configuration file is ACL’ed using the ApplicationPoolIdentity (IIS APPPOOL\ApplicationPoolName).
This adds a new layer of security as now the configuration file is only accessible by that application pool. The ApplicationPoolIdentity can also be used as the account for Anonymous Authentication.
Instead of using the generic IUSR account you can now ACL your content using the ApplicationPoolIdentity.
This would mean your content will only be available to the TestWebSite Application Pool. If any other application pool tried to access/run the content a 401.3 Unauthorized error message will be thrown. But in IIS 7.0 we still use Network Service to launch the w3wp.exe process.
With IIS 7.5 security is being tightened further and now the w3wp.exe process by default uses the ApplicationPoolIdentity to run. Going forward in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 by default the worker process will now be run as the ApplicationPoolIdentity which is a Managed Service Account. Managed Service Accounts are a new concept in Win 7 / Windows 2008 R2 you can read more about them here http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd367859.aspx
What this means is that you now need to ACL your content based on this ephemeral ApplicationPoolIdentity account (IIS APPPOOL\ApplicationPool ) instead of the NTAuthority\Network Service.
In the near future IIS will by default distance itself from Network Service. But you still do have the option to change the identity back to Network Service.
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Does this change how you access external resource, ie SQL Server. With Network Service, we grant access to databases via domain\machinename$. Does this work the same?
No. Even here it will be domain\machine$
IIS 6.0 introduced a lot of features to increase reliability and security. As an architectural change
This new feature is available in Vista / win2008 SP2 no need to wait for windows 7, we just tried it on 2008 sp2 and it works like a charm
Not sure I understand what you're saying? Use this identity for both anonymous access as well as impersonation? That's gotta be wrong since these two have two very different purposes and security requirements.
Also, is this account accessible via the visible Security API at all or does this work just with ICacls?
This is lame to say the least - secure or not this makes something that was already difficult to manage even more difficult to configure and maintain and get average users to configure. Not to mention the installation hassles this causes by using totally non-transparent defaults.
IIS7 + AppPoolId = W3wp.exe is NETWORK SERVICE
IIS7.5 + AppPoolId = W3wp.exe is AppPoolId
Does that mean constrained delegation will work with AppPoolId in IIS7 but won't work with AppPoolId in IIS7.5.
That means in IIS 7.5 you should use NETWORK SERVICE if you are doing constrained delegation, correct?
Geee... at first I was scared I'll have to master icacls.exe since the DefaulAppPool user is not visible in the list when trying to setup filesystem permissions via GUI (security tab). Also this user is not visible in the compmgmt.msc console. However it becomes visible after you assing it (OI)(RX) and possibly any priviledges. Well not the most intuitive solution but at least it works.
BTW. I bet most admins in my company just instantly switched to Network Service :)