The Windows Portable Devices Driver Kit in the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) comes bundled with five WPD sample drivers. Two of these drivers, WpdHelloWorldDriver and WpdWudfSampleDriver, were available in previous versions of the WDK. The remaining three drivers, WpdBasicHardwareDriver, WpdServiceSampleDriver, and WpdMultiTransportDriver, are new additions in the Windows 7 WDK. Together, these samples illustrate how to build a WPD driver for the different scenarios that WPD enables, including interaction with basic hardware, media synchronization, device services, and multi-transport.

We had mentioned these samples in a previous post on the Windows 7 Portable Devices Development Kits. The purpose of this post is to spend some time covering each sample in greater detail. Hopefully, this will help driver developers navigate the various WPD samples, and figure out which sample(s) best fit their driver requirements.

The following sections will describe each driver, the WPD commands that each implements, and the operating systems that each supports. In addition, we will provide the links to instructions for building and installing.

WpdHelloWorldDriver

Of all the sample drivers, the WpdHelloWorldDriver is the most simple. This driver supports and emulates four objects in software: a device object, a storage object, a folder object, and a text file object. WpdHelloWorldDriver was designed to provide the most basic scaffolding or skeleton required for developing a WPD driver; similar to the canonical "Hello World" program used for introducing a framework or programming language. If you are new to WPD driver development and need a kick start, we recommend starting with this sample.

The WpdHelloWorldDriver sample supports 22 commands. These commands cover the basic functionality that enables a WPD device to be browsed in Windows Explorer as a read-only device. The commands fall into four categories: object enumeration, object properties, object resources, and device capabilities. Like all WPD drivers, when this driver is installed and a WPD application calls a method to enumerate objects, set a property, open a resource, and so on, the driver will invoke a corresponding command handler for one of these supported commands.

This driver is supported on Windows XP, Windows Vista (x86, amd64), and Windows 7 (x86, amd64).

For instructions on how to build and install this driver, see: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd573842.aspx

WpdBasicHardwareDriver

The WpdBasicHardwareDriver sample is new for Windows 7 and builds upon the WpdHelloWorldDriver. This sample stands apart from the other WPD samples in that it accesses real device hardware instead of emulating a software-only device. We provided this sample to demonstrate how a basic WPD driver can be built to interact with simple devices.

For our demonstration device, we targetted a “hobbyist” microcontroller that reads data from a variety of sensors. The sensors include: a 2-axis accelerometer, a 3-axis accelerometer, a temperature/humidity sensor, a pressure sensor, a distance sensor, a passive infrared sensor, a compass, a vibration sensor, and a light sensor. These sensor devices are controlled by a Parallax BS2 microcontroller attached to the PC via an RS232 port. In addition to the driver source code, we also provided some sample firmware code that retrieves the sensor data and sends them over the serial port to the PC.

The WpdBasicHardwareDriver sample supports an even smaller set of commands than the WpdHelloWorldDriver. In the interests of only providing the code that is necessary to demontrate the concepts, we removed some commands for object resources because the WpdBasicHardwareDriver does not need to support reading of files from the device. The remaining commands fall under these three categories: object enumeration, object properties, and device capabilities. To see this driver in action, you can use WpdMon to view the events corresponding to each sensor reading.

This sample also showcases how WPP Software Tracing can be used for error checking macros. A while ago, we had a post that describes how you can migrate your existing WPD driver from OutputDebugString to WPP Tracing. The WpdBasicHardwareDriver is now bundled with the macros. 

This driver is supported on Windows XP, Windows Vista (x86, amd64), and Windows 7 (x86, amd64). If you plan to develop drivers that integrate sensors with Windows 7, we recommend using the Sensor API and Sensor Driver Model. If you need to develop drivers to integrate sensors with Windows Vista or Windows XP, WPD provides a viable solution. 

For instructions on how to build and install this driver, see: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd573829.aspx

WpdWudfSampleDriver

The WpdWudfSampleDriver is a comprehensive driver sample that demonstrates using the WPD DDI for media transfer scenarios.  In addition to file browsing and transfer via Windows Explorer, this sample contains additional functionality that supports media synchronization with Windows Media Device Manager (WMDM) applications (e.g. Windows Media Player), and photo acquisition with Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) applications (e.g. Paint). All interactions with hardware are emulated in software (meaning that this driver talks to a "fake" device).

To enable the media transfer scenarios, the WpdWudfSampleDriver sample had to support a large set of commands, including the commands supported by the WpdHelloWorldDriver. These commands can be divided into eight categories: object enumeration, object management, object properties, bulk properties, object resources, capabilities, and storage.

In this version, we fixed a compatibility issue in the Vista WDK version of the sample driver code that prevents it from being properly enumerated in Windows Media Player.

This driver is supported on Windows XP, Windows Vista (x86, amd64), and Windows 7 (x86, amd64).

For instructions on how to build and install this driver, see: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd573843.aspx

WpdMultiTransportDriver

The WpdMultiTransportDriver builds upon the WpdHelloWorldDriver and demonstrates how driver developers can take advantage of the Windows 7 support for Multiple Transports. For an overview on what multi transport is all about, check out our post two weeks ago about Multi-Transport support in Windows 7.

This driver emulates a transport driver and illustrates how to set the relevant multi-transport settings and generate the Functional Unique Identifier (FUID) during device arrival, in order to perform handshaking with the WPD Composite Driver. In addition, this sample supports multiple Windows Driver Framework I/O queues, where all the other WPD samples only support a single I/O queue. 

Other than the multi-transport support, the WpdMultiTransportDriver sample is virtually identical as the WpdHelloWorldDriver, and supports the same set of WPD commands. A quick way to zero-in on the code modifications needed to support Multi-Transport is to use your favorite diff program to compare the WpdHelloWorldDriver and WpdMultiTransportDriver source folders.

Because multi-transport support is a new feature in Windows 7, this sample driver is only supported on Windows 7 (x86, amd64).

For instructions on how to build and install this driver, see: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd573843.aspx

WpdServiceSampleDriver

The WpdServiceSampleDriver demonstrates how a driver can support Windows 7 Device Services.  We covered an introduction to Device Services in another recent post. This driver emulates a basic Contacts device service that uses the Full Enumeration Sync device service. To support Device Services, this driver implements device services-specific WPD command sets: WPD_CATEGORY_SERVICE_COMMON, WPD_CATEGORY_SERVICE_CAPABILITIES, and WPD_CATEGORY_SERVICE_METHODS. These commands would allow an application to determine the capabilities of a service and invoke methods supported by the service. This driver also uses the new functionality in the WPD Class Extension (IPortableDeviceClassExtension) to register and unregister the Contacts device service interface. Last but not the least, to support object and property management, this sample also supports commands for object enumeration, object properties, bulk properties, object resources, and device capabilities.

The WpdServiceSampleDriver does not emulate a Media Transfer Protocol (MTP) device. Like most of the other WPD samples, it simulates a software-only device that is not tied to a specific protocol or transport. If you are looking to build firmware for an MTP device that supports device services, you should start with the Device Enabling Kit.

Device Services is a new feature we introduced in Windows 7, therefore this sample is only supported on Windows 7 (x86, amd64).

For instructions on how to build and install this driver, see: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd573846.aspx


This posting is provided "AS IS" with no warranties and confers no rights.