Jonah Lehrer the author of “How We Decide” has written an article for the New Yorker showing how people take mental shortcuts to arrive at wrong answers.  Most surprisingly was the finding that more intelligent people make this mistake more often than others.  You can read the entire article here:

http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/frontal-cortex/2012/06/daniel-kahneman-bias-studies.html#ixzz1xgvsJzj5

Also, if you haven’t read “How We Decide” and are interested in a nice high-level look at the cognitive decision-making process then you should absolutely read this book:

http://www.amazon.com/How-We-Decide-Jonah-Lehrer/dp/0547247990